The Fern Bulletin, April 1912 A Quarterly Devoted to Ferns
Vol. XX No. 2
A Quarterly Devoted to Ferns
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- The Fern Flora of Illinois 32
- Ophioglossaceae 35
- Osmundaceae 35
- Polypodiaceae 36
- Salviniaceae 40
- Equisetaceae 40
- Lycopodiaceae 41
- Salaginellaceae 41
- Isoetaceae 42
- A Problematical Fern (Gymnogramma lanceolata) 42
- The Tall Spleenworts 45
- Further Notes on Variation in Botrychium Ramosum 47
- Rare Forms of Fernworts—XXII 48
- Still Another Christmas Fern 48
- Polystichum acrostichoides f. Gravesii 49
- Notes on Various Ferns 51
- Schizaea Pusilla at Home 53
- Pteridographia 55
- Index to Recent Literature 60
- Editorial 61
- Book Notes 62
THE FERN BULLETIN
|Vol. XX||APRIL, 1912||No. 2|
THE FERN FLORA OF ILLINOIS.
By E. J. Hill.
The state of Illinois has an area of about 55,000square miles. It lies between the parallels 37° and42° 30′, thus giving a length of 5½° or about 380miles. This north and south extension produces amilder climate in the southern part, but no fern of essentiallysouthern distribution comes in except Polypodiumpolypodioides, though the two quill-worts ofthe state are perhaps better placed under this headalso. It is the lowest of the north-central states inaverage altitude, the mean above sea level being about600 feet, varying from 300 feet at the junction of theOhio and Mississippi rivers to 1250 feet at the Wisconsinline in the extreme northwest part. As thereis nothing in these extremes of elevation to effect materialchanges of temperature due to altitude, itsfloristic features are not much modified in respect ofthis. Anything of this character must be ascribed tolocal conditions, not general causes. Another factorthat affects its floristic features is the dominance ofprairie within its boundary, the forests and woodlands,sometimes very narrow strips, chiefly bordering itsstreams and lakes. Since lands covered with grass arenot adapted to the growth of ferns, and consequentlyare limited in species, their number and variety must bemuch restricted for this reason. This must have beenthe case in the primitive condition of the prairies beforethey were so generally taken up for cultivation.33The loss in the original fern-flora is slight in this regardwhen compared with that of flowering plants.As nearly all of the state is in the region of the glacialdrift, the soil is influenced by this condition also. Theravines cut in the drift and in the underlying rockwhere it is reached, with their varying degrees ofmoisture and shade, show the greatest variety in fern-life,though a greater abundance of certain kinds maybe found in woods and swamps. The prevailing rocksare limestone, but sandstones occur in some localities,especially along the Illinois and Rock rivers. Thesein some parts of the state, particularly in the coalmeasures, the area of which is large, may be interstratifiedwith shales and slate. These rocks and thesoils resulting from their disintegration and decomposition,taken in connection with those of the glacial drift,provide a fair range of edaphic conditions for thegrowth of ferns. It is evident that such as prefer acalcareous soil will be best represented, if any preferenceof this kind inheres in their nature.
It will be seen from the list that not quite one half(56) of the Pteridophytes accorded specific rank in“Gray’s New Manual of Botany” (115) are reportedfrom this state. The genera are represented in largerproportion, 23 of the 31 given, or if Athyrium be separated,24 of 32, or three-fourths of them. All the speciesof several of the smaller genera are found, up tothree in the case of Osmunda, but all of none withspecies exceeding this number. The genus most fullyrepresented is Equisetum, eight of the ten, or nine ofeleven when E. robustum is given specific rank. Tothese must be added E. Ferrissii, not in the Manual.
Reliable data for the distribution of the ferns of thestate are not very full. It is hoped that they may bemade more complete by the co-operation of those into34whose hands the list may fall. Many additions to thenumber of species can hardly be expected. Doubtlessthe state has been quite well explored in this respect.I find only two to add to those published by Pattersonin 1876, Isoetes Butleri, described in 1878 from specimensfound in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) butsince found in this state, and Equisetum Ferrissii, a recentaddition. The list is mainly a compilation madeat the request of the editor of the Fern Bulletin. Nospecial fitness for the task is claimed, since my personalknowledge of the region covered is almost wholly confinedto five of the northeastern counties, Kankakee,Will, Cook, Dupage and Lake. Only casual trips ofslight duration have been made to other places. Thepublication most relied on for the state at large is the“Catalogue of the Phaenogamous and vascular cryptogamousplants of Illinois,” H. N. Patterson, Oquauka,Ill., 1876. His catalogue of plants growing in the immediatevicinity of Oquauka has also been used. FriedrichBrendel’s “Flora Peoriana, Budapest, 1882,” (theGerman edition, but since given in English, I believe)has furnished some definite information for a districtaround the city of Peoria. The floras of H. H. Babcockand of Higley and Raddin for Chicago and vicinityhave likewise been consulted, but as they respectterritory mainly familiar to the writer, could be citedbut little.
As explanatory of the plan followed I may state thatI have first mentioned the localities or stations withwhich I am personally acquainted, and from whichexamples are in my herbarium unless very commonthroughout. Citations from Patterson’s catalogue forthe state at large are entered in quotation marks followedby (P.). Where Peoria is given the authorityis Brendel, where Oquauka, Patterson. A few have35been furnished by V. H. Chase, who collected in Starkcounty and vicinity, and by Prof. Atwell of the NorthwesternUniversity, from data in the herbarium of theUniversity.
Ophioglossum vulgatum (L.) “Wabash county, asingle plant.” Schneck. (P.) Probably elsewhere,but easily overlooked.
Botrychium obliquum (Muhl.) In open woods,Cook Co., rare. “S. Illinois. Vasey, Schneck.”(P.) Peoria Co., V. H. Chase. Starved Rock.J. H. Ferriss.
Botrychium obliquum dissectum. (Spreng.)Peoria Co., V. H. Chase.
Botrychium virginianum. (L.) Common in richwoods in the northeastern part of the state, andprobably throughout. It often occurs in colonies,sometimes of a dozen or more plants. In woodsalong Lake Michigan it readies a height of twofeet.
Osmunda cinnamomea. (L.) Abundant in swampyareas in the northeastern counties, especially in peatyground near Lake Michigan within the limits of theancient glacial Lake Chicago. Swampy areas insand barrens west of Kankakee, “Menard county.Hall.” (P.) Starved Rock. Clute.
Osmunda Claytoniana (L.) Frequent in swampsand wet woods from Kankakee county north in theeastern part of the state. Peoria, Brendel. HendersonCo., Patterson. “Moist ravines, common.”says Patterson for the state at large.
Osmunda regalis (L.) Has a range similar to thelast and is quite frequent northeast in swamps and36wet woods. Peoria, Brendel. Mason county, Bebb.Infrequent says Patterson for the state as a whole.
Adiantum pedatum (L.) Common throughout thestate in rich woods.
Polypodium vulgare (L.) On cliffs of sandstone,La Salle and Ogle counties. “Common in Jacksonand Union, French, Forbes.” (P.)
Polypodium polypodioides (L.) Common throughoutthe state in rich woods.
Pteris aquilina (L.) Copses and borders of drywoods. Frequent, or abundant in localities northeast.Starved Rock, La Salle county, Peoria, Brendel,Henderson, Patterson, Shelby, Mary Evertz. “Common.”for the state. (P.) Rare in Will county inthe prairie region. Clute.
Cheilanthes lanosa (Michx.) “Rocks, St. Claircounty, Brendel, and southward.” (P.)
Cheilanthes Feei (Moore.) Limestone cliffs by Mississippiriver, Carroll county, “near Galena, Brendel;Pike county, Mead; Jackson, French.” (P.)
Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Frequent on cliffs oflimestone along the Desplaines river and its tributariesfrom Sag Bridge, Cook county, to Joliet, Willcounty, and in Kankakee and Carroll counties. Scarceon cliffs of sandstone, Oregon, Ogle county. Hendersoncounty, Patterson; Kane county, W. J.Minium; Wedron, La Salle county, Ferriss. Reportedfor the state as general but “infrequent” in Patterson’scatalogue.
Pellaea gracilis (Michx.) Rare in thin soil inshelves of shaded and usually moist calcareousrocks. Sag Bridge and Lemont, Cook county, andBounbonnais, Kankakee county. On moist sandstone37rocks, Liberty Hill, Oregon, Ogle county; limestone,Aurora, Kane county; sandstone, Sheridan, La Sallecounty, Ferriss.
Asplenium angustifolium (Michx.) Henderson.Patterson, Peoria, Brendel “Rich woods, scarce forthe state.” (P.) Joliet rare, Starved Rock morecommon. Ferriss.
Asplenium pinnatifidum (Nutt.) “On rocks, Jacksonand Union counties, French; Pope, Schneck.”(P.)
Asplenium platyneuron (L.) “Open rocky woods,scarce.” (P.)
Asplenium ebenoides (R. R. Scott.) Reported fromJackson county, Ill., but without further referencein Fern Bulletin, vol. V., p. 13.
Asplenium Trichomanes (L.) “On shaded rocks,Jackson and Union counties, French; Wabash,Schneck.” (P.) Southern Illinois. Vasey. StarvedRock, two plants. Ferriss.
Athyrium filix-foemina (L.) Frequent in rich,moist woods in Cook and adjoining counties, aswell as throughout the state as given by Patterson,Peoria, Brendel; Jackson, Saml. Bartley; Henderson,Patterson; Ravinia, Willow Springs, Cookcounty, Prince.
Athyrium thelypteroides (Michx.) “Near Glencoe,Cook county.” Higley Raddin; “Peoria andFulton counties, Brendel and Wolff; Wabash,Schneck.” (P.) Joliet, rare; Starved Rockabundant, Ferriss.
Camptosorus rhyzophyllus (L.) On outcrops oflimestone in the Desplaines valley in Cook and Willcounties from Sag Bridge to Joliet. Abundant atDellwood Park and in one locality at Sag Bridge,38infrequent elsewhere. “Shaded rocks throughoutbut scarce.” (P.) Jo Daviess county, Pepoon.
Phegopteris hexagonoptera (Michx.) “Rich openwoods and shaded ravines, chiefly in the northernportion of Cook county; infrequent.” Higley andRaddin (1891.) Peoria, Brendel; Henderson, Patterson;Jackson, Bartley; Joliet and Starved Rock,Ferriss. Patterson reports “frequent” throughout.
Phegopteris polypodioides (Fée.) Starved Rock,La Salle county, “Menard county, Hall.” (P.)
Nephrodium noveboracense (L.) “Elgin, Kanecounty, Vasey; Wabash, Schneck, Swamps, scarce.”(P.)
Nephrodium Thelypteris (L.) Frequent or oftenabundant in swampy, wooded ground or openmarshes, in Cook, Lake, Dupage, Will and Kankakeecounties, Peoria, Brandel; Starved Rock, Clute.Frequent throughout the state according to Patterson.
Nephrodium cristatum (Michx.) Starved Rock,rare, Ferriss.
Nephrodium Goldieanum (Hook.) “Rich Woods,Peoria and