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The Draughtsman's Handbook of Plan and Map Drawing Including instructions for the preparation of engineering, architectural, and mechanical drawings.

The Draughtsman's Handbook of Plan and Map Drawing
Including instructions for the preparation of engineering, architectural, and mechanical drawings.
Title: The Draughtsman's Handbook of Plan and Map Drawing Including instructions for the preparation of engineering, architectural, and mechanical drawings.
Release Date: 2018-06-08
Type book: Text
Copyright Status: Public domain in the USA.
Date added: 27 March 2019
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Please see the Transcriber’s Notes at the end of this text.


Cover image

THE
DRAUGHTSMAN’S HANDBOOK
OF
PLAN AND MAP DRAWING.


PLATE 1.

E. & F. N. Spon. London & New York.

Plan shewing Principal Characters of work used in Mapping.

Large illustration (500 kB)


THE

DRAUGHTSMAN’S HANDBOOK

OF

PLAN AND MAP DRAWING,

INCLUDING INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE PREPARATION OF

ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL, AND MECHANICALDRAWINGS.

With Numerous Illustrations and Coloured Examples.

BY
GEORGE G. ANDRÉ, C.E., M.S.E.

Spon

LONDON:
E. & F. N. SPON, 48, CHARING CROSS.
NEW YORK:
446, BROOME STREET.

1874.


[v]

PREFACE.

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The main purpose of the present work is to be a handy book ofreference for draughtsmen engaged chiefly in Topographical Drawings.But to have limited its use to one class of draughtsmen, and especiallyto the skilled members of that class, would have necessitated thediscovery of more cogent reasons for its publication than its author hasyet been able to adduce. Works of such a character exist already, andthough their imperfections are numerous, they fulfil their purpose in afairly satisfactory manner. But had the field been clear in thisdirection, it is so restricted in extent that to have entered upon itwould have been to undertake a labour that promised little fruit, forsuch a work could be only of small utility even to those for whom itwas specially intended. It was, therefore, determined to make thepresent handbook generally useful by giving it a much wider scope.And hence, if the intention has been efficiently carried out, it mayclaim a place in every drawing office, be it that of the Topographer,the Hydrographer, the Surveyor, the Military, Civil, or MechanicalEngineer, or the Architect. Whether or not this degree of successhas been achieved, is not for the author to judge. But should he havefailed to reach the high mark at which he has aimed, he hopes, withsome degree of confidence, that he has at least succeeded in producinga book which the experienced draughtsman will find valuable as abook of reference, and which the pupil may constantly consult withprofit. A want has long been felt by draughtsmen for some work ofthis kind to which they might refer their pupils in the office, and itmay not be presumptive to suppose that the present work has suppliedthat want. To render it convenient for this twofold purpose, it has[vi]been divided into two parts. In the first part the principles and practicesof the art have been clearly but briefly explained and illustrated;while in the second part, the application of the principles previouslylearned has been treated of, and such information given as relatesdirectly to the duties of the practitioner.

Of course, in a work of the present character, originality in thematter is neither to be expected nor desired; enough if the mannershows some novelty, and is such as to add value to the matter.

Although the preparation of maps and plans has received thechief share of attention, engineering, architectural, and mechanicaldrawings have been largely treated of. Projection, orthographic,isometric and perspective, has been altogether omitted as beyond thescope of the work; but Colouring and Shading have been fully consideredand profusely illustrated.

The Plates appended as examples for reference are numerousand varied in character; they have been specially prepared byB. Alexander, to whom the author offers his warmest thanks for thetruly admirable manner in which he has executed the work entrustedto him.

16, Craven Street, Charing Cross,
September 7th, 1874.


[vii]

CONTENTS.

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PART I.—THE ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS.
Section I.—The Drawing Office and its Furnishings.
PAGE
 The Drawing Office1
Instruments2
Materials5
Precautions and Remarks9
Section II.—Geometrical Problems.15
Section III.—Lines, Dots, and their Combinations.
 Straight and Curved Lines27
Lines of uneven thickness30
The Broken Line30
The Dotted Line31
Combinations of Straight, Broken, and Dotted Lines31
The Wavy Line33
Grass-land34
Swamps and Marshy Ground35
Sand and Gravel35
Woodland36
Uncultivated Land37
Contour Lines37
Section IV.—Colours.
 Flat-tints40
Conventional Colours44
Water45
Grass-land45
Marsh45
Sand and Gravel46
Mud[viii]46
Woodland46
Cultivated Land47
Uncultivated Land47
Buildings47
Roads and Streets47
Fences47
Section V.—Shading.
 Application of Shade Lines48
Cylindrical Surfaces50
Shading Lines50
Shading Lines on Cylindrical Surfaces51
Shading Lines in Topographical Drawings52
The Vertical System of Shading57
Shading in Colours63
Hill Slopes63
Cylindrical Surfaces in Mechanical Drawings64
PART II.—APPLICATIONS.
Section I.—Lettering, Bordering, and North Points.
 Lettering66
Borders69
North Points69
Section II.—Scales.
 Scales of Distances70
Scales of Construction74
Section III.—Plotting.
 Reference Lines and Points78
Plotted Points78
To Plot Reference Lines and Points78
To Plot Traverse Reference Lines84
To Plot Detail[ix]89
To Plot Contours90
To Plot Sounded Points in Submerged Districts90
Errors and Error-sheets91
To Plot Vertical Sections92
To lay down Gradients95
To Plot a Section from a Contour Map96
Section IV.—Civil Engineers’ and Surveyors’ Plans.
 StandingOrders ofParliament 98
Documents required99
Plans100
Book of Reference101
Sections101
Working Sections103
Regulations of Local Government Board:—
 Boundary Maps104
Maps for Division into Wards104
Plans of Proposed Works105
General Plan105
Detailed Plan106
Mining Plans106
Estate and Town Plans107
Section V.—Map Drawing.
 Single Stroke Streams109
Double Line Streams and Rivers110
Colouring Streams or Rivers110
Islands and Sand-banks, Sandy and Pebbly Beds of Rivers110
Roads and Pathways111
Mountain Passes111
Fords and Ferries, Toll-gates111
Telegraph Lines and Stations112
Railways, Stations, and Termini112
Size of Cities, Towns, and Villages112
Sketching, Shading, and Copying Hills113
Field Sketching114
Examination of Maps in the Field118
Section VI.—Mechanical and ArchitecturalDrawings.[x]121
Section VII.—Copying and Reducing.
 Drawing from Copy127
Copying by Tracing128
Copying by Transfer129
Reducing and Enlarging130
The Pantograph131
The Eidograph136
Drawings for Lithographers and Engravers141
Trigonometrical Formulæ142
Inclined Measure143
Curvature and Refraction143
Index144

[xi]

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

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 Page.Plate.
Alphabets, examples of..4, 5, 6
Angle, to bisect16..
Angles, to construct16, 17..
Arch, equilateral23..
——, horse-shoe24..
——, lancet24..
——, obtuse24..
——, ogee25..
——, semi-elliptical23..
——, Tudor24..
Architectural drawings, colouring of...24
Borders..1, 3, 8, 9,13
Boundaries, parish, &c...3, 15
Canal locks..1, 11
Chart, example of..18
Cinquefoil, Gothic26..
Circle, to describe through given points.17..
——, to find the centre of18..
Cliffs..1, 11, 14
Colouring architectural drawings...24
—— maps and plans..1, 3, 13, 17,28, 33
—— mechanical drawings..22, 23, 27
Copse..1, 10
Corners..1, 3, 8, 9,13
Cylinders shaded51, 52..
Cyma recta25..
—— reversa25..
Docks..1, 11
Drawings, architectural, colouring of...24
——, isometrical..27
——, mechanical, colouring of...22, 23, 27
Eidograph..26
Ellipse, to draw22..
Equilateral triangle, to construct.16..
Flourishes..25
Fortifications, plans..32
——, sections..31
Geological maps..28
—— sections, coloured..20, 21
Grass341, 17
Gravel351
Harbours..11
Hexagon, to describe21..
Hill shading53, 55, 56, 58,61, 62, 63..
Hills..1, 12, 14, 17
—— in colour..12, 14
Isometrical drawings..27
Lakes..1, 3, 11,
Land, cultivated321, 13
——, uncultivated37..
Lettering, examples of..4, 5, 6, 7,8, 25
Line, to divide into equal parts.15..
Lines, broken30..
——, contour37..
——, dotted31..
——, section29..
——, shade49..
——, to bisect15..
Maps, geological[xii]..28
——, Ordnance, example of...18
—— and plans, colouring of...1, 3, 13, 17,28
Marsh351, 10, 11
Mechanical drawings, colouring of...22, 23, 27
Mining plans..33
North points..9
Oval, to construct18..
Pantograph..26
Parabola, to draw21..
Pentagon, to describe20..
Perpendicular, to erect15..
Plans, estate..3, 17
——, fortifications..32
——, mining..33
——, office..2
——, parliamentary..13, 19
——, reducing or enlarging..26
——, town improvements..13
—— and maps, colouring of...1, 3, 13, 17,28, 33
Plotting, examples of82, 85, 86, 88,93..
Quarries..1
Quatrefoil, Gothic26..
Radii of circle, to draw18..
Railways..1, 3
Rectangles, similar, to construct20..
Rivers..1, 11, 12, 17
——, outlines of30..
Roads..1, 3, 12, 17
Rocks..1, 11
Roofs30..
Sand351
—— banks..1, 11
Scales71, 75, 76