The Draughtsman's Handbook of Plan and Map Drawing Including instructions for the preparation of engineering, architectural, and mechanical drawings.
Please see the Transcriber’s Notes at the end of this text.
PLAN AND MAP DRAWING.
E. & F. N. Spon. London & New York.
Large illustration (500 kB)
PLAN AND MAP DRAWING,
INCLUDING INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE PREPARATION OF
ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL, AND MECHANICALDRAWINGS.
With Numerous Illustrations and Coloured Examples.
GEORGE G. ANDRÉ, C.E., M.S.E.
E. & F. N. SPON, 48, CHARING CROSS.
446, BROOME STREET.
The main purpose of the present work is to be a handy book ofreference for draughtsmen engaged chiefly in Topographical Drawings.But to have limited its use to one class of draughtsmen, and especiallyto the skilled members of that class, would have necessitated thediscovery of more cogent reasons for its publication than its author hasyet been able to adduce. Works of such a character exist already, andthough their imperfections are numerous, they fulfil their purpose in afairly satisfactory manner. But had the field been clear in thisdirection, it is so restricted in extent that to have entered upon itwould have been to undertake a labour that promised little fruit, forsuch a work could be only of small utility even to those for whom itwas specially intended. It was, therefore, determined to make thepresent handbook generally useful by giving it a much wider scope.And hence, if the intention has been efficiently carried out, it mayclaim a place in every drawing office, be it that of the Topographer,the Hydrographer, the Surveyor, the Military, Civil, or MechanicalEngineer, or the Architect. Whether or not this degree of successhas been achieved, is not for the author to judge. But should he havefailed to reach the high mark at which he has aimed, he hopes, withsome degree of confidence, that he has at least succeeded in producinga book which the experienced draughtsman will find valuable as abook of reference, and which the pupil may constantly consult withprofit. A want has long been felt by draughtsmen for some work ofthis kind to which they might refer their pupils in the office, and itmay not be presumptive to suppose that the present work has suppliedthat want. To render it convenient for this twofold purpose, it has[vi]been divided into two parts. In the first part the principles and practicesof the art have been clearly but briefly explained and illustrated;while in the second part, the application of the principles previouslylearned has been treated of, and such information given as relatesdirectly to the duties of the practitioner.
Of course, in a work of the present character, originality in thematter is neither to be expected nor desired; enough if the mannershows some novelty, and is such as to add value to the matter.
Although the preparation of maps and plans has received thechief share of attention, engineering, architectural, and mechanicaldrawings have been largely treated of. Projection, orthographic,isometric and perspective, has been altogether omitted as beyond thescope of the work; but Colouring and Shading have been fully consideredand profusely illustrated.
The Plates appended as examples for reference are numerousand varied in character; they have been specially prepared byB. Alexander, to whom the author offers his warmest thanks for thetruly admirable manner in which he has executed the work entrustedto him.
16, Craven Street, Charing Cross,
September 7th, 1874.
|PART I.—THE ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS.|
|Section I.—The Drawing Office and its Furnishings.|
|The Drawing Office||1|
|Precautions and Remarks||9|
|Section II.—Geometrical Problems.||15|
|Section III.—Lines, Dots, and their Combinations.|
|Straight and Curved Lines||27|
|Lines of uneven thickness||30|
|The Broken Line||30|
|The Dotted Line||31|
|Combinations of Straight, Broken, and Dotted Lines||31|
|The Wavy Line||33|
|Swamps and Marshy Ground||35|
|Sand and Gravel||35|
|Sand and Gravel||46|
|Roads and Streets||47|
|Application of Shade Lines||48|
|Shading Lines on Cylindrical Surfaces||51|
|Shading Lines in Topographical Drawings||52|
|The Vertical System of Shading||57|
|Shading in Colours||63|
|Cylindrical Surfaces in Mechanical Drawings||64|
|Section I.—Lettering, Bordering, and North Points.|
|Scales of Distances||70|
|Scales of Construction||74|
|Reference Lines and Points||78|
|To Plot Reference Lines and Points||78|
|To Plot Traverse Reference Lines||84|
|To Plot Detail[ix]||89|
|To Plot Contours||90|
|To Plot Sounded Points in Submerged Districts||90|
|Errors and Error-sheets||91|
|To Plot Vertical Sections||92|
|To lay down Gradients||95|
|To Plot a Section from a Contour Map||96|
|Section IV.—Civil Engineers’ and Surveyors’ Plans.|
|„||„||„||Book of Reference||101|
|Regulations of Local Government Board:—|
|Maps for Division into Wards||104|
|Plans of Proposed Works||105|
|Estate and Town Plans||107|
|Section V.—Map Drawing.|
|Single Stroke Streams||109|
|Double Line Streams and Rivers||110|
|Colouring Streams or Rivers||110|
|Islands and Sand-banks, Sandy and Pebbly Beds of Rivers||110|
|Roads and Pathways||111|
|Fords and Ferries, Toll-gates||111|
|Telegraph Lines and Stations||112|
|Railways, Stations, and Termini||112|
|Size of Cities, Towns, and Villages||112|
|Sketching, Shading, and Copying Hills||113|
|Examination of Maps in the Field||118|
|Section VI.—Mechanical and ArchitecturalDrawings.[x]||121|
|Section VII.—Copying and Reducing.|
|Drawing from Copy||127|
|Copying by Tracing||128|
|Copying by Transfer||129|
|Reducing and Enlarging||130|
|Drawings for Lithographers and Engravers||141|
|Curvature and Refraction||143|