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Coffee and Chicory_ Their culture, chemical composition, preparation for market, and consumption, with simple tests for detecting adulteration, and practical hints for the producer and consumer

Coffee and Chicory_
Their culture, chemical composition, preparation for market, and consumption, with simple tests for detecting adulteration, and practical hints for the producer and consumer
Category: Coffee
Title: Coffee and Chicory_ Their culture, chemical composition, preparation for market, and consumption, with simple tests for detecting adulteration, and practical hints for the producer and consumer
Release Date: 2018-06-16
Type book: Text
Copyright Status: Public domain in the USA.
Date added: 27 March 2019
Count views: 47
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Plate 1.—ABranch of Coffea Arabica, with Berries and Flowers.
Plate 1.—ABranch of Coffea Arabica, with Berries and Flowers.

{i}

COFFEE AND CHICORY:

THEIR
CULTURE, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, PREPARATION
FOR MARKET, AND CONSUMPTION,
WITH
SIMPLE TESTS FOR DETECTING ADULTERATION,
AND
PRACTICAL HINTS FOR THE PRODUCER
AND CONSUMER.
BY
P. L. SIMMONDS,
AUTHOR OF “THE COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS OF THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM,”
“A DICTIONARY OF TRADE PRODUCTS,” &c.

WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS.

LONDON:
E. & F. N. SPON, 16, BUCKLERSBURY.
1864.
{iii}{ii}

PREFACE.

A practical essay on the culture and preparation of coffee for market inthe various producing countries of the world, brought down to thepresent time, has long been wanted, especially as the sources of supplyhave changed so much of late years. Porter’s “Tropical Agriculturist”has long been out of print, and my own work on “The Commercial Productsof the Vegetable Kingdom” is too expensive and too diffuse for ordinaryreference. The present hand-book deals with the subject in a popularform, but, at the same time, supplies correct information on mostpoints, combined with the fullest descriptive and statistical detailsrespecting every coffee-producing country. For much of the informationrelating to coffee cultivation in Ceylon, I am indebted to a smalltreatise by Mr. G. C. Lewis, privately published in that island. For theviews of buildings and scenery, I am under obligations to Sir{iv} EmersonTennent and Messrs. Worms, who kindly lent me original drawings andphotographs—whilst the microscopic representations of pure andadulterated coffee and chicory are copied, by permission, from Dr.Hassall’s elaborate work on “Food and its Adulterations.” Trusting thatthis little work may be found useful and interesting to a large class, Isend it forth as the pioneer of other hand-books on the great staples ofcommerce.

P. L. S.

8, Winchester-street, S.W.,
July, 1864.
{v}

CONTENTS.

COFFEE.
SECTION I.
 PAGE
Botanical Description of the Coffee-Tree (with two illustrations)1
SECTION II.
History of its Introduction and Distribution6
SECTION III.
Production and Supply12
SECTION IV.
Commercial Varieties of Coffee15
SECTION V.
Chemical Analyses20
SECTION VI.
Coffee-Leaf Tea, &c.27
SECTION VII.
Adulterants (with an illustration)29
SECTION VIII.
Culture in the West Indies and America34
SECTION IX.
Culture in Arabia42{vi}
SECTION X.
Cultivation in Ceylon (with an illustration)45
SECTION XI.
Buildings, Planting, &c., in Ceylon (with four illustrations)52
SECTION XII.
Harvesting the Crop, and Preparation for Market (with an illustration)59
SECTION XIII.
Preparation for Market, continued63
SECTION XIV.
Cultivation in Southern India73
SECTION XV.
Bourbon, Java, and the East78
SECTION XVI.
Coffee as a Beverage81
————
CHICORY.
SECTION I.
Introduction into England. Continental Production and Consumption88
SECTION II.
Cultivation. Harvesting and Preparation for Market93
SECTION III.
Structure and Chemical Composition (with an illustration)98

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COFFEE AND CHICORY.

COFFEE.

SECTION I.
BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION.

The coffee-tree—Coffea arabica, Linn.—is a plant belonging to thenatural order Cinchonaceæ. It is a large erect bush, quite smooth inevery part; leaves oblong lanceolate, acuminate, shining on the upperside, wavy, deep green above, paler below; stipules subulate, undivided.Peduncles axillary, short, clustered; corollas white, funnel-shaped,sweet-scented, with four or five oblong-spreading twisted lobes. Fruit acompressed drupe, furrowed along the side, crowned by the calyx. Seedssolitary, plano-convex, with a deep furrow along the flat side. Putamenlike parchment.

The generic name given to the plant by Linnæus was taken, it is said,from Coffee, a province of Narea, in Africa where it grows in abundance.

Plate 1 represents a branch of the coffee-tree in blossom{2} and fruit,and the lettered figures at the foot have reference to the dissection ofthe flower and fruit.

A—The flower, cut open, to show the situation of the five filaments,with their summits lying upon them.

B—Represents the flower cup, with its four small indentations enclosingthe germ or embryo seed-vessel, from the middle of which arises thestyle, terminated by the two reflexed spongy tops.

C—The fruit entire, marked at the top with a puncture like a navel.

D—The fruit open, to show that it consists ordinarily of two seeds,which are surrounded by the pulp.

E—The fruit cut horizontally, to show the seeds as they are placederect, with their flat sides, together.

F—One of the seeds taken out, with the membrane or parchment upon it.

G—The same with the parchment torn open, to give a view of the seed.

H—The seed without the parchment.

Lindley and Paxton only enumerate two species: C. arabica, native ofYemen, and C. paniculata, indigenous to Guiana.

Continental botanists, however, describe no less than eight otherspecies: four inhabiting Peru, C. microcarpa, C. umbellata, C.acuminata, and C. subsessilis; two indigenous to the West Coast ofAfrica, C. laurina and C. racemosa; and two natives of the EastIndies, C. bengalensis and C. Indica. Some of these are probablymere varieties.

Whatever its origin may have been, there can be no doubt that there arethree kinds or species now grown, differing materially from each other.

The Arabian or Mocha coffee is characterised by having a small and morebrittle leaf, with branches shorter, and more upright than the Jamaicaand Ceylon coffee; and by its berry{3} being almost always, or at leastvery frequently, single seeded, and the seed cylindrical and plump.

The Jamaica coffee-tree has a larger and more pliable leaf, longer andmore drooping branches, and berries almost always containing two seeds.(The Ethiopian.)

The great difference now existing between the two kinds, may possiblyhave originated in the change of soil, climate, and season, operatingthrough a series of years; but this difference is so decided, and sostrongly marked, that the veriest tyro can in a moment pronounce ofeither.

The East India or Bengal coffee-tree differs much from all others, butis in every respect a veritable coffee.

The leaf is smaller, and lighter green, than the foregoing variety; itsberry is infinitely smaller, and when ripening, turns black instead ofblood-red. Coffee made from it is of excellent flavour, and much liked.

Within the tropics, coffee thrives best at an elevation of 1200 to 3000feet, and rarely grows above 6000 feet. It may be cultivated as far as36° north latitude, where the mean temperature is about 70°.

In the western hemisphere coffee is grown in many of the West IndiaIslands, in Central America, the northern republics of South America,Berbice, Cayenne, and Brazil. In Africa it is grown in Liberia and otherparts of Western Africa, at St. Helena, in Egypt, and Mozambique, and alittle in Natal. Passing eastward we find it in Arabia, one of theoldest seats of culture, the southern peninsula of India, Ceylon,Bourbon, Java, Célèbes, and other parts of the Eastern Archipelago,Siam, and some of the Pacific Islands.

Coffee-plants are able to bear an amount of cold which is little knownor thought of. The high and cold regions of Jamaica near St. Catherine’sPeak, and the foot of the Great Blue Mountain Peak, both situated atsome 6000 feet above{4} the level of the sea; and, again, the mountains ofArabia, the Neilgherries, and Ceylon, furnish instances of the greatdegree of cold that the coffee-plant will endure. More than this, it isan established fact that it bears a larger, plumper, and far morearomatic berry at these altitudes than in a lower situation and in awarmer temperature. The coffee produced on plantations near the foot ofthe Blue Mountain Peak, in Jamaica, is the finest in the world. InArabia, likewise, the cold at night is sometimes intense; yet who willdispute the goodness of Mocha coffee?

Nothing can exceed the beauty of the rows or walks planted withcoffee-trees, from their pyramidical shape and glossy dark leaves,amongst which are hanging the ripe, scarlet-coloured berries. A writer,in his “Impressions of the West Indies,” thus speaks: “Anything in theway of cultivation more beautiful or more fragrant than acoffee-plantation I had not conceived, and oft did I say to myself thatif ever I became, from health or otherwise, a cultivator of the soilwithin the tropics, I would cultivate the coffee-plant, even though Idid so irrespective altogether of the profit that might be derived fromso doing. Much has been written, and not without justice, of the richfragrance of an orange-grove, and at home we ofttimes hear of the sweetodours of a bean-field. I have, too, often enjoyed, in the Carse ofStirling and elsewhere in Scotland, the balmy breezes as they swept overthe latter, particularly when the sun had burst out with unusualstrength after a shower of rain. I have likewise in Martinique, SantaCruz, Jamaica, and Cuba, inhaled the breezes wafted from the orangeries,but not for a moment would I compare either with the exquisite aromaticodours from a coffee-plantation in full bloom, when thehill-side—covered over with regular rows of the shrubs, with theirmillions of jasmine-like flowers—showers down upon you as you ride upbetween the plants a perfume

Plate 2.—A Coffee Plantation in Jamaica.
Plate 2.—A Coffee Plantation in Jamaica.

{5}

of the most delicately delicious description. ’Tis worth going to theWest Indies to see the sight and inhale the perfume.”

Plate 2 represents a coffee plantation in Jamaica.

In the culture of the tree there is a singular difference in the westernand eastern hemispheres, inasmuch as in the former shade is consideredinjurious, whilst in the latter it is held to be desirable, if notabsolutely necessary.{6}

SECTION II.
HISTORY OF ITS INTRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION.

Coffee, although taking its common and specific names from Arabia, isnot a native plant of that country, but of Abyssinia, where it is foundboth in the wild and cultivated state. From that country it was broughtto Arabia, in comparatively very recent times. Mr. Lane states that itwas first used there about the year 1450. It was not known to the Arabs,therefore, for more than eight hundred years after the time of Mahomed,and was introduced only between forty and fifty years before thediscovery of America. The Arabians called coffee kăhwăh, which is an oldword in their language for wine. The unlucky word gave rise to a disputeabout the legality of its use among the Mahomedan doctors, who,mistaking the word for the thing it represented, denounced as a narcoticthat which was anti-narcotic. They were beaten, and coffee has eversince become a legitimate and favourite potable of the Arabs.

In a century its use spread to Egypt and other parts of the Turkishempire. For two centuries from its introduction into Arabia, the use ofcoffee seems to have been confined to the Mahomedan nations of WesternAsia; and, considering its rapid spread and popularity among theEuropean nations, it is remarkable that it has not, like tobacco,extended to the Hindus, the Hindu-Chinese, the Japanese, or the tribesof the Indian Archipelago, who no more use it than the Europeans do thebetel preparation. The high price of coffee and the low cost of tobacco,most likely afford the true solution{7} of the difference. One strikingresult of the use of coffee first, and then of tobacco, among theMahomedan nations is well deserving of notice. These commodities havebeen in a great measure substituted for wine and spirits, which had beenlargely, although clandestinely, used before, and hence a greatimprovement in the sobriety of Arabs, Persians, and Turks. I give thisinteresting fact on the authority of Mr. Lane, who mentions it in thenotes to his translation of the Arabian Nights.[1]

From Turkey coffee found its way to Europe. It came in use in Englandbefore either tea or chocolate. A Turkey merchant of London, of the nameof Edwards,

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