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Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, v. 1 of 3 or the Central and Western Rajput States of India

Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, v. 1 of 3
or the Central and Western Rajput States of India
Author: Tod James
Title: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, v. 1 of 3 or the Central and Western Rajput States of India
Release Date: 2018-07-04
Type book: Text
Copyright Status: Public domain in the USA.
Date added: 27 March 2019
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Transcriber’s Note:

The text is annotated with numerous footnotes, which were numberedsequentially on each page. On occasion, a footnote itself isannotated by a note, using an asterisk as the reference. Thisdistinction is followed here, with those ‘notes on notes’ aregiven alphabetic sequence (A, B, etc.). Since there are over 1500notes in this volume, they have been gathered at each chapter’s end,and resequenced for each chapter.

The notes are a combination of those of the author, and of theeditor of this edition. The latter are enclosed in square brackets.

Finally, the pagination of the original edition, published in the1820’s, is preserved for ease of reference by including thosepage numbers in the text, also enclosed in square brackets.

There are a number of references to a map, sometimes referred to asappearing in Volume I. In this edition, the MAPMAP appearsat the end of Volume III.

Crooke’s plan for the renovation of the Tod’s original text, includinga discussion of the transliteration of word other than English, isgiven in detail in the Preface.

Minor errors, attributable to the printer, have been corrected. Giventhe history of the text, it was thought best to leave all orthographyas printed.

Please see the transcriber’s note at the end of this textfor details regarding the handling of any textual issues encounteredduring its preparation.

Any corrections are indicated using an underlinehighlight. Placing the cursor over the correction will produce theoriginal text in a small popup.

Any corrections are indicated as hyperlinks, which will navigate thereader to the corresponding entry in the corrections table in thenote at the end of the text.


(From the bust by Vo. Livi, 1837. By permission of Lt.-Col. E. W.
Blunt-Mackenzie, R.A.).


Lieut.-Col. JAMES TOD
HON. D.SC. OXON., B.A., F.R.A.I.
[Original Dedication of the First Volume.]


The gracious permission accorded me, to lay at the foot of the Thronethe fruit of my labours, allows me to propitiate Your Majesty’s considerationtowards the object of this work, the prosecution of which Ihave made a paramount duty.

The Rajput princes, happily rescued, by the triumph of the Britisharms, from the yoke of lawless oppression, are now the most remotetributaries to Your Majesty’s extensive empire; and their admirer andannalist may, perhaps, be permitted to hope that the sighs of thisancient and interesting race for the restoration of their former independence,which it would suit our wisest policy to grant, may be deemed notundeserving Your Majesty’s regard.

With entire loyalty and devotion, I subscribe myself,
Your Majesty’s
Most faithful subject and servant,
Bird Hurst, Croydon,
June 20, 1829.
vii[Original Dedication of the Second Volume.]


Your Majesty has graciously sanctioned the presentation of theSecond Volume of the Annals of Rajputana to the Public under theauspices of Your Majesty’s name.

In completing this work, it has been my endeavour to draw a faithfulpicture of States, the ruling principle of which is the paternity of theSovereign. That this patriarchal form is the best suited to the geniusof the people may be presumed from its durability, which war, famine,and anarchy have failed to destroy. The throne has always been thewatchword and rallying-point of the Rajputs. My prayer is, that itmay continue so, and that neither the love of conquest, nor false viewsof policy, may tempt us to subvert the independence of these States,some of which have braved the storms of more than ten centuries.

It will not, I trust, be deemed presumptuous in the Annalist of thesegallant and long-oppressed races thus to solicit for them a full measureof Your Majesty’s gracious patronage; in return for which, the Rajputs,making Your Majesty’s enemies their own, would glory in assuming the“saffron robe,” emblematic of death or victory, under the banner of thatchivalry of which Your Majesty is the head.

That Your Majesty’s throne may ever be surrounded by chiefs whowill act up to the principles of fealty maintained at all hazards by theRajput, is the heartfelt aspiration of,

Your Majesty’s
Devoted subject and servant,


No one can undertake with a light heart the preparation of a newedition of Colonel Tod’s great work, The Annals and Antiquitiesof Rajasthan. But the leading part which the Rājputs have takenin the Great War, the summoning of one of their princes to a seatat the Imperial Conference, the certainty that as the result ofthe present cataclysm they will be entitled to a larger share inthe administration of India, have contributed to the desire thatthis classical account of their history and sociology should bepresented in a shape adapted to the use of the modern scholarand student of Indian history and antiquities.

In the Introduction which follows I have endeavoured toestimate the merits and defects of Colonel Tod’s work. Here itis necessary only to state that though the book has been severaltimes reprinted in India and once in this country, the obviousdifficulties of such an undertaking have hitherto prevented anywriter better qualified than myself from attempting to preparean annotated edition. Irrespectively of the fact that this workwas published a century ago, when the study of the history,antiquities, sociology, and geography of India had only recentlystarted, the Author’s method led him to formulate theories on awide range of subjects not directly connected with the Rājputs.In the light of our present knowledge some of these speculationshave become obsolete, and it might have been possible, withoutimpairing the value of the work as a Chronicle of the Rājputs,to have discarded from the text and notes much which no longerpossesses value. But the work is a classic, and it deserves to betreated as such, and it was decided that any mutilation of theoriginal text and notes would be inconsistent with the object ofthis series of reprints of classical works on Indian subjects. Thexonly alternative course was to correct in notes, clearly distinguishedfrom those of the Author, such facts and theories as are no longeraccepted by scholars.

It is needless to say that during the last century much advancehas been made in our knowledge of Indian history, antiquities,philology, and sociology. We are now in a position to use improvedtranslations of many authorities which were quoted by theAuthor from inadequate or incorrect versions. The translationof Ferishta’s History by A. Dow and Jonathan Scott has beensuperseded by that of General J. Briggs, that of the Āīn-i-Akbarīof F. Gladwin by the version by Professor H. Blochmann andColonel H. S. Jarrett. For the Memoirs of Jahāngīr, the Authorrelied on the imperfect version by Major David Price, which hasbeen replaced by a new translation of the text in its more completeform by Messrs. A. Rogers and H. Beveridge. For the Laws ofManu we have the translation by Dr. G. Bühler. The passagesin classical literature relating to India have been collected,translated, and annotated by the late Mr. J. W. McCrindle.Much information not available for the Author’s use has beenprovided by The History of India as told by its own Historians,by Sir H. M. Elliot and Professor J. Dowson, and by Mr. W.Irvine’s translation, with elaborate notes, of N. Manucci’s Storiado Magor. Among original works useful for the present editionthe following may be mentioned: J. Grant Duff’s History of theMahrattas; Dr. Vincent A. Smith’s Early History of India,History of Fine Art in India and Ceylon, Asoka, the BuddhistEmperor of India, and Akbar, the Great Mogul; ProfessorJadunath Sarkar’s History of Aurangzib, of which only threevolumes have been published; Mr. W. Irvine’s Army of theIndian Moghuls; Sir W. Lee-Warner’s Protected Princes ofIndia.

Much historical, geographical, and ethnological informationhas been collected in the new edition of the Imperial Gazetteer ofIndia, the, the Bombay Gazetteer edited by Sir J. M. Campbell, and,more particularly, in the revised Gazetteer of Rajputana, includingthat of Mewār and the Western States Residency and BīkanerAgency by Lieutenant-Colonel K. D. Erskine, and that of Ajmerby Mr. C. C. Watson. Lieutenant-Colonel Erskine’s work, basedon the best local information, has been of special value, and itis much to be regretted that this officer, after serving as Consul-Generalxiat Baghdad, was invalided and died in England in 1914,leaving that part of the Gazetteer dealing with the Eastern States,Jaipur, Kotah, and Būndi, unrevised. For botany, agriculture,and natural productions I have used Sir G. Watt’s Dictionary ofthe Economic Products of India, and his Commercial Products ofIndia; for architecture and antiquities, J. Fergusson’s Historyof Indian and Eastern Architecture, edited by Dr. J. Burgess, andThe Cave Temples of India by the same writers. In ethnologyI have consulted the publications of the Ethnological Survey ofIndia, of which Mr. H. A. Rose’s Glossary of the Tribes and Castesof the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province, Mr. BhimbhaiKirparam’s account of the Hindus and Khān Bahādur FazalullahLutfullah’s of the Musalmāns of Gujarāt, published in the BombayGazetteer, vol. ix. Parts i. ii., have been specially valuable. Besidesthe general works to which reference has been made, many articleson Rajputana and the Rājputs will be found in the Journal ofthe Royal Asiatic Society and its Bombay branch, in the Journalof the Asiatic Society of Bengal, and in the Indian Antiquary, andother periodicals. The Reports of the Archaeological Survey ofIndia conducted by Sir A. Cunningham, Dr. J. Burgess, and SirJ. H. Marshall, are of great importance.

I cannot pretend to have exhausted the great mass of newinformation available in the works to which I have referred,and in others named in the Bibliography; and it was not myobject to overload the notes which are already voluminous.To the general reader the system of annotation which I haveattempted to carry out may appear meticulous; but no othercourse seemed possible if the work was to be made more usefulto the historian and to the scholar. The editor of a work of thisclass is forced to undertake the somewhat invidious duty ofcalling attention to oversights or

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