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Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, v. 3 of 3 or the Central and Western Rajput States of India

Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, v. 3 of 3
or the Central and Western Rajput States of India
Author: Tod James
Title: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, v. 3 of 3 or the Central and Western Rajput States of India
Release Date: 2018-07-07
Type book: Text
Copyright Status: Public domain in the USA.
Date added: 27 March 2019
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Transcriber’s Note:

The text is annotated with numerous footnotes, which were numberedsequentially on each page. On occasion, a footnote itself isannotated by a note. In the previous two volumes, these werereferenced using symbols (e.g. *, †), which have been convertedto an alphabetic sequence (e.g., A, B). In this volume, however, the‘subnotes’ appear in one instance as numerals. For the sake of consistency, theconvention used in the previous volumes has been adopted.

Since there are over 900 notes in this volume, they have beengathered at each chapter’s end, and resequenced for each chapter.Links are provided to navigate from the reference to the note,and back.

The notes are a combination of those of the author, and of theeditor of this edition. The text of the latter are enclosed insquare brackets. The bold-faced phrases that begin each topicwere also added by the editor, and spelling of Hindi or Sanskritwords may vary between those phrases and the author’s text.

The pagination of the original edition, published in the1820's, is preserved for ease of reference by including thosepage numbers in the text, also enclosed in square brackets.

Crooke’s plan for the renovation of the Tod’s original text, includinga discussion of the transliteration of words other than English, isgiven in detail in the Preface.

Several tables spanned multiple pages, with sums totaled before thepage break as “Carried forward”, and repeated on the following page.These have been removed, given the nature of the current text.

Minor errors, attributable to the printer, have been corrected. Giventhe history of the text, it was thought best to leave all orthographyas printed.

Please see the transcriber’s note at the end of this textfor details regarding the handling of any textual issues encounteredduring its preparation.

A complex genealogical chart appears on p. 1457, inserted inmid-paragraph spanning pp. 1456 and 1458. It has been moved toprecede that paragraph. The chart was not conducive to rendering inthis format. It has been approximated in the text, and a linkprovided to an image of the original page.

The cover image has been amended to include identifying information,and is added, as amended, to the public domain.

Any corrections are indicated using an underlinehighlight. Placing the cursor over the correction will produce theoriginal text in a small popup.

Any corrections are indicated as hyperlinks, which will navigate thereader to the corresponding entry in the corrections table in thenote at the end of the text.

IANNALS AND ANTIQUITIES
OF RAJASTHAN
II

COLONEL TOD AND HIS JAIN GURU.
(From a painting said to be the work of the Author’s native artist, Ghāsi.)
Frontispiece.

ANNALS AND ANTIQUITIES
OF
RAJASTHAN

OR THE CENTRAL AND WESTERN
RAJPUT STATES OF INDIA
BY
Lieut.-Col. JAMES TOD
LATE POLITICAL AGENT TO THE WESTERN RAJPUT STATES
EDITED WITH AN INTRODUCTION AND NOTES BY
WILLIAM CROOKE, C.I.E.
HON. D.SC. OXON., B.A., F.R.A.I.
LATE OF THE INDIAN CIVIL SERVICE
IN THREE VOLUMES
VOL. III.
HUMPHREY MILFORD
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
LONDON   EDINBURGH   GLASGOW   NEW YORK
TORONTO   MELBOURNE   BOMBAY
1920
v

CONTENTS

  PAGE
 
BOOK VIII
 
SKETCH OF THE INDIAN DESERT
 
 
CHAPTER 1
 
General aspect—Boundaries and divisions of the desert—Probable etymology of the Greek oasis—Absorption of the Ghaggar river—The Luni, or salt-river—The Rann, or Ran—Distinction of thal and ruiThal of the Luni—Jalor—Siwanchi—Machola and Morsin—Bhinmal and Sanchor—Bhadrajun—Mewa—Balotra and Tilwara—Indhavati—Gugadeo-ka-thal—Thal of Tararoi—Thal of Khawar—Mallinath-ka-thal, or Barmer—Kherdhar—Juna Chhotan—Nagar Gura 1257
 
 
CHAPTER 2
 
Chauhan Raj—Antiquity and nobility of the Chauhans of the desert—Dimensions and population of the Raj—Nagar—Bakhasar—Tharad—Face of the Chauhan Raj—Water—Productions—Inhabitants—Kolis and Bhils—Pitals—Thals of Dhat and Umrasumra—Depth of wells—Anecdote—City of Aror, the ancient capital of Sind—Dynasties of the Sodha, the Sumra, and the Samma princes—Their antiquity—Inferred to be the opponents of Alexander the Great, and Menander—Lieutenant of Walid takes Aror—Umarkot: its history—Tribes of Sind and the desert—Diseases—Narua or Guinea-worm—Productions, animal and vegetable, of the desert—Daudputra—Itinerary 1275
 
 
viBOOK IX
 
ANNALS OF AMBER, OR DHUNDHAR
 
 
CHAPTER I
 
Designations given by Europeans to the principalities of Rajputana—Dhundhar known by the name of its capitals, Amber or Jaipur—The country of the Kachhwahas an aggregate of conquests by the race so called—Etymology of Dhundhar—Origin of the Kachhwahas—Raja Nal founds Narwar—Dhola Rae expelled, and founds Dhundhar—Romantic legend of Dhola Rae—His treachery to his benefactor, the Mina lord of Khoganw—Marries a daughter of a Bargujar chief, and becomes his heir—Augments his territories, and transfers his government to Ramgarh—Marries a daughter of the prince of Ajmer—Is killed in battle with the Minas—His son Kankhal conquers Dhundhar—Medal Rae conquers Amber, and other places—Conquests of Hundeo—Of Kuntal—Accession of Pajun—Reflections on the aboriginal tribes at this period—The Mina race—Pajun marries the sister of Prithiraj of Delhi—His military prowess—Is killed at the rape of the princess of Kanauj—Malesi succeeds—His successors—Prithiraj creates the Barah-kothris, or twelve great fiefs of Amber—He is assassinated—Baharmall—The first to wait on the Muhammadan power—Bhagwandas the first Rajput to give a daughter to the imperial house—His daughter marries Jahangir, and gives birth to Khusru—Accession to Man Singh—His power, intrigues, and death—Rao Bhao—Maha—Mirza Raja Jai Singh, brother of Raja Man, succeeds—Repairs the disgraces of his two predecessors, and renders immense services to the empire—Is poisoned by his son—Ram Singh—Bishan Singh 1327
 
 
CHAPTER 2
 
Sawai Jai Singh succeeds—Joins the party of Azam Shah—Amber sequestrated—Jai Singh expels the imperial garrison—His character—His astronomical knowledge—His conduct during the troubles of the empire—Anecdote illustrative of the evils of polygamy—Limits of the raj of Amber at the accession of Jai Singh—The new city of Jaipur—Conquest of Rajor and Deoti—Incidents illustrative of Rajput character—Jai Singh’s habit of inebriation—The virtues of his character—Contemplates the rite of Aswamedha—Dispersion of his valuable manuscripts—His death—Some of his wives and concubines become Satis on his pyre 1341
 
 
viiCHAPTER 3
 
The Rajput league—Aggrandizement of Amber—Isari Singh succeeds—Intestine troubles produced by polygamy—Madho Singh—The Jats—Their Rajas—Violation of the Amber territory by the Jats—Battle—Rise of Macheri—Decline of the Kachhwaha power after the death of Madho Singh—Prithi Singh—Partap Singh—Intrigues at his court—The stratagems of Khushhaliram, and the Macheri chief—Death of Firoz the Filban, paramour of the Patrani—Broils with the Mahrattas—Partap attains majority, and gains the victory of Tonga—His difficulties—Exactions of the Mahrattas—Jagat Singh—His follies and despicable character—Makes Raskapur, his concubine, queen of half Amber—Project to depose him prevented by a timely sacrifice—Mohan Singh elected his successor 1356
 
 
CHAPTER 4
 
Jaipur the last of the Rajput States to embrace the proffered alliance of the British—Procrastination habitual to the Rajputs, as to all Asiatics—Motives and considerations which influenced the Jaipur court in declining our alliance—A treaty concluded—Death of Jagat Singh—Effects of our interference in the intrigues respecting the succession—Law of primogeniture—The evils attending an ignorance of Rajput customs—Violation of the law of succession in the placing of Mohan Singh on the gaddi—Reasons for departing from the rule of succession—Conduct of the British authorities—The title of Mohan Singh disputed by the legal heir-presumptive—Dilemma of the Nazir and his faction—The threatened disorders prevented by the unexpected pregnancy of one of the queens of Jagat Singh—Birth of a posthumous son 1366
 
 
SHAIKHAWAT FEDERATION
 
 
CHAPTER 5
 
viiiOrigin of the Shaikhavati federation—Its constitution—Descent of the chiefs from Balaji of Amber—Mokalji—Miraculous birth of his son—Shaikhji—Aggrandizes his territory—Raemall—Suja—Raesal—His heroism—Obtains grants from Akbar—Gets possession of Khandela and Udaipur—His exploits and character—Girdharji—Is cut off by assassination—Dwarkadas—His extraordinary feat with a lion—Falls by Khan Jahan Lodi—Birsinghdeo—His authority usurped by his son—Bahadur Singh—Aurangzeb directs the demolition of the temple of Khandela—Bahadur deserts his capital—Shujawan Singh Raesalot flies to its defence—He is slain, the temple razed, and the city garrisoned—Kesari—Partition of the territory between Kesari and Fateh Singh—Fateh Singh assassinated—Kesari resists the regal authority—Is deserted in the field and slain—His son Udai Singh taken to Ajmer—Khandela retaken, and restored to Udai Singh, who is liberated—He resolves to punish the Manoharpur chief—Is baffled by that chief’s intrigues—Is besieged by Jai Singh of Amber—Khandela becomes tributary to Amber 1378
 
 
CHAPTER 6
 
Bindrabandas adheres to Madho Singh in the civil wars of Amber—Partition of lands annulled—Self-immolation of the Brahmans—Consequences to Bindraban, in his contest with Indar Singh, the other chief of Khandela—Civil war—Prodigal expiatory sacrifice of Bindraban—He abdicates—Govind Singh—Is assassinated—Narsinghdas—Rise and devastations of the Mahrattas—Siege of Khandela—Terms of redemption—Murder of deputies by the Mahrattas—Indar Singh perishes in the attempt to avenge them—Partap Singh—Rise of the Sikar chief—Transactions between Partap and Narsingh, his co-partner—Partap obtains the whole of Khandela—Narsingh recovers by stratagem his share of Khandela—Domestic broils and feuds—General assembly of the Sadhani and Raesalot chiefs, to counteract the encroachments of Amber—Treaty between the Shaikhawats and the court of Amber—Violated by the latter—The confederacy assault the town of the Haldia faction—Narsingh refuses tribute to the court, and Khandela is sequestrated—Narsingh and Partap treacherously made captive, and conveyed to Jaipur—Khandela annexed to the fisc 1395
 
 
CHAPTER 7
 
ixBagh Singh opposes the faithless court of Amber—He is joined by the celebrated George Thomas—Desperate action—Bagh Singh placed in the fortified palace at Khandela—His garrison, with his brother, slain by Hanwant Singh, son of Partap—Bagh regains the palace—The lands of Khandela farmed by Amber to two Brahmans—They are expelled by the feudatory Barwatias, who resist the court—They become a banditti—Sangram Singh, cousin to Partap, their leader—He avoids the treachery of the court—His death—The confederacy unite in the league against Jodhpur—New treaty with the Amber court—Liberation of Partap and Narsingh—Grand union of the Shaikhawats—Abhai Singh succeeds in Khandela—Treachery of the court—Hanwant regains Govindgarh, Khandela, etc.—Restoration of Khushhaliram to the ministry of Jaipur—New investitures granted to the feudatories of Khandela—Abhai and Partap inducted into their ancestral abodes—Incident illustrative of the defects of the Rajput feudal system—Khandela assailed by Lachhman Singh, chief of Sikar—Gallant defence of Hanwant—His death—Surrender of Khandela to Lachhman Singh—The co-heirs exiled—Power and influence of Lachhman Singh—Foils the designs of the Purohit—Present attitude of Lachhman Singh—Subordinate branches of the Shaikhawats—The Sadhanis—Their territories wrested from the Kaimkhanis and Rajputs—The Khetri branch of the family of Sadhu attains superiority—Bagh Singh of Khetri murders his own son—The Larkhanis—Revenues of Shaikhavati
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