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The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898, Volume 52, 1841-1898 Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the

The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898, Volume 52, 1841-1898
Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the
Title: The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898, Volume 52, 1841-1898 Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the
Release Date: 2018-07-01
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Date added: 27 March 2019
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East India Islands in James Bell’s System of Geography (Glasgow, 1836)

East India Islands in James Bell’sSystem of Geography (Glasgow, 1836)

[From copy in Library of HarvardUniversity]


The Philippine Islands, 1493–1898

Explorations by early navigators, descriptions ofthe islands and their peoples, their history and records of thecatholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts,showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions ofthose islands from their earliest relations with European nations tothe close of the nineteenth century,

Volume LII, 1841–1898
The Arthur H. Clark Company
Cleveland, Ohio




Documents of1841–1898
Internal political condition of the Philippines.Sinibaldo de Mas; Madrid, 184229
Matta’s report. Juan Manuel de la Matta;Manila, February 25, 184391
The Philippines, 1860–1898: some comment andbibliographical notes. James A. LeRoy; Durango, Mexico, 1907112
Events in Filipinas, 1841–1872. [Summarizedfrom Montero y Vidal’s Historia deFilipinas.]208
Constitution of the Liga Filipina. JoséRizal; Tondo, July 3, 1892217
The friar memorial of 1898. Manuel Gutierrez,O.S.A., and others; Manila, April 21, 1898227
Bibliographical Data287
Appendix: Agriculture in Filipinas. Joseph Basco yVargas, and others291
Errata and addenda to VOLUMESI–LII325







In this final documentary volume of our series wepresent matter which is planned to bring out the salient points of thehighly important period from 1841 to 1898, a little more than the lasthalf-century of the Spanish régime, together with suchbibliographical aids as will enable students to find readily the bestand most available sources for the history of that time. The first twodocuments (written respectively by a civil official and a militarycommander) furnish a reliable and intelligent survey, by eyewitnesses,of political, economic, and social conditions in the islands in1842–43; and thus supplement the similar relations (inVOL. LI) dated fifteen years earlier. Theadmirable paper by James A. LeRoy who is well known as the leadingauthority on Philippine affairs, places before our readers a clear andorderly review of the last four decades of Spanish rule inFilipinas—with keen but impartial comments on conditions, events,and men therein; and with full and well-selected bibliographicalreferences to the best works on the subject. It gives us pleasure topresent here the hitherto unpublished constitution of the LigaFilipina, from Rizal’s own MS. draft; and the friar memorial of1898 (a curiously mediæval document for the end of the nineteenthcentury), which [14]heretofore had appeared only in a limited Spanishedition and a partial and unsatisfactory English translation. To thesedocuments is added an appendix on agricultural conditions in Filipinas,giving a view of these in 1784 and another in 1866; an outline of theprojects, efforts, and achievements of the noted Economic Society ofManila; and bibliographical references for the use of the reader.Following is a synopsis of the above documents:

Of exceeding interest and importance is the third volume ofMas’s Informe, on the policy of the Spanishgovernment as regards internal affairs in the Philippine Islands.Intended almost exclusively for the use of the government, butcomparatively few copies were published, and hence the volume is ofgreat rarity, and is not mentioned by most of the bibliographers. Weknow with certainty of four copies: two owned in the Philippines, oneby the heirs of Clemente Zulueta, and the other by Epifanio de losSantos (our translation being made from a typewritten copy of thelatter); one in the Peabody Institute, Baltimore, and one in thecollection of the Compañía General de Tabacos deFilipinas, Barcelona. Its chief value and importance lie in itstreatment of various vital questions that had already begun to presentthemselves to some minds more or less clearly—the relation of theFilipino-Spaniards to those of the Peninsula; questions concerning thenatives, Chinese mestizos, and Spaniards; separation from Spain; andlastly, the proposition to free the islands. The document, whilecontaining many things that are general in nature, and which evenappear childish and visionary, is in many other things clear-sighted,and shows deep and keen observation. [15]The first two volumes ofMas’s work (which have been cited so frequently in this series)were written in order to form a suitable background to the thirdvolume, and thus lead to it naturally, by giving a résuméin succinct form of the history, government, and social and economicconditions of the islands. Proceeding to his purpose, the author statesthat the intentions of Spain in regard to the colony may be one ofthree: perpetual possession; utter neglect; or emancipation. He treatsonly of the first and third. To ensure perpetual possession, there arethree principles to be borne in mind and acted upon: the reduction ofthe white population; the subordination of the natives; and the generalreform of the Spanish administration. The growth of the whitepopulation fosters the spirit of independence, for the Spaniards of thePhilippines look upon the islands as their own country, and have noaffection for Spain. Their only concern is to hold possession of thegovernment posts, but they are lazy and ignorant. They are naturallydisgruntled by the appointment of peninsular Spaniards to posts in theislands; for, since the promotions are limited, they cannot hope forthe advancement that they believe is due them. Their discontent wasseen in practical form in the insurrection instigated in 1822 becauseof the officials brought from Spain by Antonio Martinez; and there wasevident discontent because of the new contingent that appeared in 1825.There are more than one thousand Filipino-Spanish males in thePhilippines, but only four hundred posts, and their hopes continuallywane at the appearance of officials from Spain, although Spain has anevident right to send whom it will to the islands. To obviate thetrouble, Mas suggests that only [16]single men be sent to theislands from Spain to act as officials, and that they be required toreturn to the Peninsula after twenty years’ service, with theoption of returning in ten years. These men will probably marry Spanishwomen in the islands, and on their return to Spain will take theirfamilies with them, thus reducing the white population considerably. Itis a mistake to send women to the colony, and a grave error to endeavorto increase the white population there. A plan is proposed for thefurther reduction of the white population by sending all males to Spainat the government expense, at the age of sixteen, where they shall beeducated at the expense of the Manila treasury. The sending of thesituado from Spain for the support of the islands was formerly a largefactor in keeping the colony loyal, but since that has becomeunnecessary the one great check on the colony has disappeared. Butseparation now would mean that the whites would disappear in the massof the natives, and would even become inferior to them. It is wrong toinfer that the whites and the natives will work together, for there isa barrier between them, and the recent outbreak in Tayabas cannot inany way be ascribed to the former. The salvation of the whites lies inagriculture, and great profits are to be acquired therein, although theSpaniards are loath to engage in such work. Their fields can becultivated by Chinese labor, and by captured Moros, and contracts canbe made, in addition, with individual Filipinos, under certainexemptions. Mas favors the system of indentured servants, forself-interest will dictate good treatment to them. To ensure nativerespect for the whites, the education of the former must be veryrestricted, and the colleges at [17]Manila be closed. Filipinosoldiers shall not rise above the rank of private or corporal. Filipinosecular priests must be reduced in numbers, and must, in general, actonly as the assistants of the regulars. Filipinos cannot maintain thedignity of the priestly office, and instead debauch it, as Mas provesby various letters. Religion is the mainstay of the islands, and theregular curas must be given as much power as possible, and officialsmust work in harmony with them. The friars must, however, live morally,abstain from trade, and not meddle in temporal affairs. Emancipationwill be the ruin of the friars; and, in order that they may conserveSpanish interests, all the curas must be Spaniards from Spain. Curaslose respect among the natives because they are compelled to collectthe marriage and burial fees, and the government should come to theiraid by collecting these under the form of a specified tax. Above all,the whites must observe religious ceremonies, which they now almostutterly neglect. The laws of the Indias are executed too rigidly, andare too favorable to the natives. The latter are becoming arrogant andimpudent, and will end by driving out the Spaniards. Mas would requirea distinctive dress for the natives, the chiefs to be the only ones whomay wear jackets. The priests have been guilty of destroying rank amongthem. Natives must salute all Spaniards and show great outward respect.The title of “Don” must be given them no longer, for thisgives the idea of equality with the whites. All government officialsmust be given decent pay, and must be made to spend it liberally.Offices should not be given in order that their incumbents may amassmoney. Only Spaniards of good character should be allowed to go to theislands. [18]If the treasury officials are decreased in numberand the collections farmed out, this work should be done by natives andmestizos, as this is an odious office, and engenders much ill-will.Race hatred must be developed between the Filipinos and Chinesemestizos as much as possible. The latter are the richer and moreintelligent, and in case of emancipation at this moment would soon gainthe upper hand. They are hated by the natives. It is highly importantto have a respectable and moral Spanish force in the islands, forshould the native troops mutiny nothing can be done as matters nowstand. Curas should have the power of intervention in the meetings ofthe principales, as this method will avoid conspiracy. Natives shouldnot be taught how to cast artillery or make firearms and powder.Indeed, the powder factory recently established should be suppressed,as the contract under which it was allowed is not advantageous, andbetter powder is manufactured in Murcia. Steam vessels are needed forquick communication among the islands, and to repel Moro invasions, andsuppress insurrections. Spanish should not be taught to the natives.Newspapers may be allowed, under proper censorship; and curas shouldtranslate into the native dialect such articles as are important forthe natives. A complete system of police is necessary. Trouble is to beexpected from China, but it will

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