Painting by Immersion and by Compressed Air A Practical Handbook
We specialise in all Paints, Enamels,
Japans, Lacquers, Varnishes and
other materials for the protection
and decoration of Industrial Products
of all kinds.
Our clients comprise of the principal
Manufacturers in all Trades,
and the service we are rendering to
them is ready, willing and capable
of caring for your requirements.
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are maintained to assist the
solution of any problem, whilst
there is a wealth of practical
experience to draw upon when
PINCHIN, JOHNSON & Co., Ltd.
Paint, Varnish, Color & Enamel Manufacturers
Minerva House, Bevis Marks, London, E.C.
PINCHIN, ALD, LONDON."
AVENUE 910 (3 lines)
Painting by Immersion
and by Compressed Air.
A PRACTICAL HANDBOOK
ARTHUR SEYMOUR JENNINGS, F.I.B.D.,
Editor of "The Decorator" and the "The Decorator Series of Practical
Handbooks," Author of "Commercial Paints and Painting," "Paint and
Colour Mixing," "The Painters' Pocket Book," "House Painting and
Decorating," etc., etc. Member of the Paint and Varnish Society,
The International Society for Testing Materials, etc. Examiner in
Painters' and Decorators' Work to the City and Guilds of
With 150 Illustrations.
Offices of "THE MANAGING ENGINEER,"
93 & 94, Chancery Lane, W.C.
E. & F. N. SPON, Ltd.,
57, Haymarket, London, S.W.
SPON & CHAMBERLAIN.
123, Liberty Street
In many industries the application of paint for preservativeor ornamental purposes is imperative and theitem of expenditure is an important one.
There is abundant evidence to prove that the applicationof paint, either by means of dipping, spraying or othermechanical means, effects an enormous saving of timeover the old method of using brushes, while the coats ofpaint are more durable and thorough.
This saving of time not only lowers the cost of productionto a very considerable extent, but it permits of alarge increase in the output.
The process of "flowing-on" enamels and varnishesdescribed in the following pages effects an even greatersaving of time in those cases where it is applicable. Theextent of this saving can be judged by the fact that a completecoat of enamel can be given to the body of a four-seatedtouring car in the almost incredibly short time oftwo minutes!
These processes are used to a very large extent in manyindustries, particularly those connected with metal workand engineering. In the United States of America andin many parts of the Continent they have reached a highdegree of perfection. In Great Britain the adoption of themethods is rapidly increasing.
It is hoped that this book will be found of serviceto manufacturers who desire to ascertain whether theprocesses can be economically employed in their particularindustry or to those who contemplate putting in a plantfor the purpose.
It should also be helpful to those who have not beenvery successful with a trial plant or who desire to bring anexisting plant fully up-to-date in its equipment. Andit should be said at once that the few cases of failure whichhave come to the notice of the author have been found oninvestigation to be due either to the use of paintunsuitable for the purpose or the adoption of a plantwhich is unfitted for the object aimed at. Three examplesmay be given. In one small castings were dipped in blackpaint, but it was found that "tears," or runs of paint whichdid not dry properly, often occurred. Here, clearly, the[Pg viii]paint was at fault. It was too thick for the purpose anddid not dry hard quickly enough. The remedy was obvious.
In another case iron casements were dipped horizontallyin a shallow paint tank and the time involved in loweringthem to obtain a complete immersion was considerable.In this case the shape and size of the tank were not suitable.It should have been deep and narrow, so that the casementscould be dipped vertically. The idea that the paint would"settle out" if a deep tank were used was shown to beerroneous.
In a third case spraying had been tried for coatingmetal casements, when it was found that the saving effectedin time was more than counter-balanced by the waste ofpaint. Of course, spraying was not suitable for a job ofthis kind, the surface to be covered being so very narrow.Such work is done most successfully by dipping.
The degree of perfection to which the process ofdipping has been carried in America is indicated by thefact that it is largely employed for piano cases and manyother articles requiring a perfect varnish finish. This processis fully described in these pages and has been successfullycarried on for some years. This fact demonstrates veryclearly the possibilities of painting and varnishing byimmersion.
All the principal appliances used for spraying paint,lacquer, enamel, varnish and similar liquids have beendescribed at length, but no attempt has been made to provethat any one appliance is superior to another. The details ofeach apparatus are given, and for the convenience of thereader, the manufacturer's name and address. It is suggestedthat those who contemplate the adoption of paint dipping, orspraying, should get into touch with all these firms, andcarefully investigate their respective merits before comingto a decision.
The services of an expert will usually be found desirable,for, although in engineering works much of the necessaryapparatus and accessories may be made on the premises,the exact details, such as the kind of paint and the exactdesign suitable for the particular purpose, are largely mattersto be decided upon in the light of experience.
ARTHUR S. JENNINGS.
365, Birkbeck Bank Chambers,
High Holborn, W.C.
Increase in the Use of Painting by Dipping and Spraying—TheRemarkable Saving of Time Effected—The Durability Equalto Brush Painting—Scope of the Subject—WhitewashingMachines—Cost of Spraying Plant—Dipping Plant may bevery Simple—List of the Principal Products to which PaintSpraying is Applied
|Painting by Immersion.|
An old Idea largely Developed in Recent Years—Simple Forms ofPaint Dipping—Painting Varnish Cans—Larger Plants—TheTank—The Agitators—McLennan Patent—Paint ProofGear Box—Three Tank Plant for Different Colours—TheRails and Hanging Apparatus—Hanging Articles after theyare Painted—Hoists—Simple Crabs and Lifting Gear—PneumaticHoist—Electrical Hoist—Trolley Hoist—TheNumber of Coats of Paint—Advantages of the DippingProcess—Protecting Parts not to be Painted—PreparingWoodwork before Painting—Filler for Iron—Stopping Holes inWoodwork—Rubbing Down
|Requirements of Different Trades.|
Bedsteads—Collapsible Gates—Dipping Sewing Machine Parts—IronRods—Iron Window Frames or Casements—MetalFurniture—Motor Parts (Metal)—Automatic Finishing ofPianos—The Standard Hydraulic Immersion System—Wheels—SomeTypical Plants—Carriage Department, WoolwichArsenal—James Gibbons—Harrison, McGregor & Co.—Phillips& Son—The Ford Motor Company—Marshall, Sons &Co., Ltd.—Hayward Bros. & Eckstein, Ltd.—The CrittallManufacturing Co.—Excluding Dust—Heating and Ventilationof Drying Room—A Model Drying Room
|Paint for Dipping.|
The Requirements of a Good Dipping Paint—Specific Gravity ofPigments—White Dipping Paint—Gloss Paint—W. G. Scotton Dipping Paints—Proportion of Paste and Thinners—Asbestine—ChinaClay—Whiting—Zinc Oxide—InertMaterials—Primers for Metal—Primers for Hard and SoftWoods—Second Coat Dipping Paints—White Paste Primer—WhiteDip for Metals—White Dip for Hard Wood—WhiteDip for Soft Wood—White Spirit—Quantity of PaintRequired for Dipping and Spraying—Spreading Capacity[Pg x]of Paints
|Painting by Compressed Air.|
The Evolution of the Apparatus Employed—Early Attempts—TheConcentric Form of Spray—Its Advantages—The Flow ofPaint—Practice Necessary—Cost of Plant—Pressure andVolume of Air Required
|Types of Spraying Apparatus.|
The Aerograph—Electric Motor Outfit—Painting a Gasometer—SmallAerograph—The Aeron—Uniformity of Coats—CupAeron—Air Transformer—The Airostyle—Construction—"Ultra"type—Pistol "M"—The Eureka Spraying Machine—TheCrane Eureka—The Crane "Record"—The "Invincible"—Type"E"—Artists' Type—The MidlandSprayer—The "Paasche" Sprayer—Larger Size—Oil andWater Separator—Automatic Electric Controller
|Supply of Compressed Air—Paint Supply—Exhaust.|
Type of Compressor—Air Main—Air Valves—Purifying Air—SmallCompressors—Water Cooling—Air Pump and TankCombined—General Arrangement of Accessories—The Supplyof Paint—The Exhaust Installation—Central Draught Fan—Locationof Work Cabinets—The Fumexer Spraying Cabinet—Accessories—Turn-tables, Auto—Electric Air Heater
|Stencils and Masks—The Requirements of DifferentTrades in Spraying.|
Protecting parts not to be Sprayed—Masks for Gas Meters—TheHart Patent Mask—Making Stencils—Stencil Paper—Four-ounceStencil Metal—Zinc Stencils—Requirements of SpecialTrades—Piece Work—Bookbinding—Carriages—Cycle Parts—ElectricalWork—Fancy Baskets—Gas Meters—Gas Stovesand Ranges—Picture Frames, Picture Mouldings, etc.—CelluloidVarnish—Spraying Ships' Hulls—Slate Enamelling—SprayingColour Specimens—Tramcars
|Some Typical Plants.|
Plant for Twelve Operators—The Birmingham Small Arms Co.—AirostylePlant for Sixteen Operators—The Davis Gas StoveCo., Ltd.—Fletcher, Russell & Co., Ltd.—Special Machines—Gittings,Hills and Boothby, Ltd.—The Kingsbury ManufacturingCo., Ltd.—J. Lucas, Ltd.—The Gas Light and CokeCo., Ltd.—[Pg xi]The Gas Meter Co., Ltd
|Paints, Lacquers, Varnishes, etc., used in Spraying.|
Temperature of Spraying Room—Fine Paint must be used—Firmswho Specialize on Dipping and Spraying Paints, etc.—StovingEnamels—Enamels—Hints on Stoving or Baking—BlackJapan Finishes—Steel Furniture Enamels—Imitation WoodEffects—White Work—Bedsteads, etc.—Transparent ColourVarnishes—Safe Baking Heats of Pigment Colours—Dippingand Spraying Compared
|Spraying versus Brushing.|
Comparison with Brush Painting—Bronzing with CelluloidMedium—Objections Sometimes Urged Against Spraying—-MottledAppearance of Paint and how Avoided—SprayingFillers and Primers—Spraying and Dipping Compared—TheGreat Saving Effected
|The Artistic Application of Paint Spraying.|
Artistic Work—Lining on Motors and Carriages—Relief Work—Scumblingand Colour Glazing—Glazing—Designs for LampShades—Reds—Blues—Yellows—Greens—Browns—Greys—Scumblingand Graining—Brush Graining—Marble Grounds—GrainingGrounds
|The "Flowing-on" System.|
The Latest Method of Finishing Automobiles—Remarkable Speedof the Method—The Apparatus—Trough Tank used in theProcess—The Kind of Paint or Japan Used—The Floco Process—PaintingMotor Bodies—Description of Modern EnamellingOvens for Motor Bodies—Notes on the Construction of Stoves—ThePerkins' Stove—Typical Goodyear Stove—DippingTrough
|Lime and Whitewash Sprayers.|
Periodical Whitewashing in Workshops Compulsory—The WellsSprayer—Limewhiting by Machine with 8-foot Bamboo Pole—TheBrown Sprayer—The Merryweather Sprayer—TheTumbling Barrel Process
|A Portable Paint Sprayer for Railway and Other Work.|
The Pennsylvania Railroad System—fainting Freight Cars—Descriptionof Apparatus—Plan and Elevation—Detail[Pg xii]Drawings
Description of the Process—The Immense Field for it—TheMetal Spraying "Pistol"—Detail Drawings of Pistol—SectionalDrawing—Diagrammatic Representation of Meltingand Spraying Jets in Action—Spraying Alloys—Cost of theProcess
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
|FRONTISPIECE||Automatic Finishing of Pianos|
|Fig.||1.||Section through Paint Tank||8|
|"||2.||Stirrers and Blinds for Paint Dipping Tank||10|
|"||3.||Longitudinal Vertical Section||10|
|"||4.||Tank for Painting Steel Sheets||12|
|"||5.||Paint-Proof Bearings and Gear Box||13|
|"||6.||Shafting and Driving Gear Designed for Implements||14|
|"||8.||Joist and Wheels supporting Hanger||16|
|"||9.||Hook for Hanging||17|
|"||10 to 14.||Hoists and Crabs||18|
|"||15.||Typical Hoist for Painting by Immersion||19|
|"||16.||Morris Standard Electric Trolley Hoist||23|
|"||17.||Electric Hoist Suitable for Heavy Goods||27|
|"||18.||Sprayed Show Card||30|
|"||19.||Dipping and Stoving Bedsteads||31|
|"||20.||Immersing Mangle Frames||35|
|"||22.||Carrier filled with Six Complete Pianos||39|
|"||23.||Introductory Carrier for Piano Frame||43|
|"||24.||Lowering Piano Cases into the Varnish Tank||47|
|"||25.||Piano Cases nearly Immersed||49|
|"||26.||Piano Cases wholly Immersed||51|
|"||27.||Piano Cases about to be Dipped||53|
|"||28.||Coach Body ready to be Dipped||55|
|"||29.||Paint Dipping Room at Woolwich||55|
|"||30.||Store Room, Woolwich||61|
|"||31.||Dipping Casements at the Crittall Manufacturing Co.||61|
|"||32.||Hook for Suspending Boxes||64|
|"||33.||Dipping Casements at Braintree||65|
|"||34.||Design for Show Card done by Spraying||69|