Ladies' manual of art or profit and pastime. A self teacher in all branches of decorative art, embracing every variety of painting and drawing on china, glass, velvet, canvas, paper and wood the secret of all glass transparencies, sketching from nature. p
The cover image was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain.
Manual of Art
Profit and Pastime.
A SELF TEACHER IN
All Branches of Decorative Art,
EMBRACING EVERY VARIETY OF
Painting and Drawing
On China, Glass, Velvet, Canvas, Paper and Wood
THE SECRET OF ALL
GLASS TRANSPARENCIES, SKETCHING FROM NATURE. PASTEL AND CRAYON DRAWING, TAXIDERMY, Etc.
In presenting to the public and our artistically inclinedpeople our “Art Manual” we should do so with sometrepidation had we not the assurance, in placing beforethem this work, that it would instantly win its way into theirfavor by its merits. Most books produced by the press of thepresent day are novels, compilations, scientific and theologicalones, meeting as they do only certain classes, and aresubjects which have been constantly before the people. Wepresent you a “new book” in every sense of the word. Wepropose entering with our readers into the beautiful realmsof Art, than which there is no more interesting subject; ourobject being its promotion and dissemination. We want tosee the great majority of our refined, educated, but needywomen embrace it as a source of profit as well as pleasure,many of whom with an intellect for greater things, but incapableof muscular labor or exposure, can, by applying themselvesenergetically to this occupation, earn a good livelihoodand famous name, and assist in disseminating its beautieseverywhere. Many homes are there in our land, which they canornament, and embellish to their profit, and the pleasure ofothers. Those comfortably situated in life, whose homedecorations they prefer to be the product of their own hands,4will hail our “Manual” as “a friend indeed.” To the childin whom is observed traits of genius it will be of invaluableassistance in developing those traits. Our aim is to combinein this work all the different methods of producing portraits,landscapes, painting on canvas, wood, china, etc., etc., tofurnish to all lovers of the useful and beautiful in art a trueteacher, making every instruction so plain and comprehensive,that a child can grasp the meaning. In thus combining allthese arts in one volume, we save the learner the expense ofpurchasing a large number of books at a cost which effectuallyprecludes the possibility of many engaging in thisprofitable and pleasant occupation. Then, to those whosetastes are artistically inclined, and who find it most inconvenientto obtain instructions in all the branches desired; tothose in whom genius lies dormant and whom necessity compelsto earn their own livelihood; to those who desire tocombine pastime with pleasure, and to those who have themeans, tastes and desire but not the necessary assistance athand to ornament their homes, we respectfully dedicate our“Art Manual.”
In learning the art of drawing or writing, like all otherArts and Sciences, there are certain first and fixed principlesto be observed as a foundation upon which thewhole is built. A right understanding of these is absolutelynecessary that we may become masters of that art whichwe undertake to learn. A neglect of these first principles is thereason why so many who have spent time sufficient to becomeaccomplished artists, are, after all their pains and loss of time,incapable of producing even fair work; and are often at a lossto know how to begin. Many commence by copying the workof others, and are surprised to find how little such ability availsthem when attempting to make sketches from nature. The instructionfor those who intend prosecuting this delightful study,is prepared with great care by the author, who has had very manyyears of experience in landscape drawing. ’Tis true that muchof his ability has been attained by years of patient industryand practice. Yet time might have been saved by little earlierattention to principles and study of works on the subject, preparedby experts. The best advice to those contemplating a studyof the art—who possess any degree of skill in the use of thepencil, is to go out into the field, with the “instructor” in onehand and your sketch-book in the other, select some object ofinterest, and “take it in.” If not satisfactory, try again—be nottoo easily discouraged. You will find the study of nature asource of pleasure, objects of interest will appear on every hand,6in the valleys, on the mountains, the lakes, or by the river side,and as you become familiar with the scenes in nature, difficultieswill disappear, and you are happy in the thought that sketchingfrom nature is truly one of the most pure and refined of intellectualpleasures and professions, and the sketch-book with you,as with the writer, will ever be a chosen companion.
When this branch of the work has been completed, and thelandscape transferred to paper and shaded up, the most difficultpart of the task is accomplished. The next essential elementin the advancement of the picture, and that which renders itmore beautiful to the eye, is color. ’Tis well to turn aside fromyour unfinished landscape or portrait, and study the colors innature, the mixing of tints, and how to apply them, as shown ona subsequent page of this book.
To become an artist requires only a love for the art, a good eye,and an abundance of continuity.
|Sketching from Nature.—How to Make a Drawing—Linear Perspective—Materials—Terms in a Picture—Lines in Nature—Line of Beauty—Landscapes—Selecting a Position—Lights and Shades||9|
|Colors in Nature.—Primary Colors—Advantages of Colors—Colors of a Spectrum—Mixtures of Colors—Transmission of Light—Pure White, Black, Gray, Green—Neutralization of Colors||23|
|Pen and Pencil Drawing.—Paper Used for Transferring—Preparation of Paper—Method of Transferring—Shading by Pen—Pentagraph—How to Use it—Copying with Transparent Paper||27|
|Pastel Painting.—Crayons and Pastels—Paper Used—Exposure to the Sun—Colors Employed—Colors of Paper—Mounting the Picture—Sketching In the Outlines—Applying the Crayon—Colors and Composition of Tints—Background||29|
|Landscape Painting in Crayon.—Paper—Arranging the Paper—Drawing—Using the Colors—Fixing the Drawing—Materials for Pastel Drawing||33|
|Monochromatic Drawing.—Directions—Materials Used—Shades—Blending—Sky—Mountains—Water—Moonlight—Old Ruins, etc.||37|
|Water Colors.—Instructions—Colors Used for Sky and Distances—Hills—Trees—Foreground—Sky—Moonlight, etc.—Selecting the Paper—Different Kinds—Brushes—Other Materials—Colors Used||38|
|Landscape Painting in Oil Colors.—Technical Names and Materials Used—Mixing of Tints—How to Apply Them—A Glaze—Impasting—Scrumbling—Handling—Light—Brushes—Materials Used—Canvas—Prepared Paper—Millboards—Panels—Palettes—A Dipper—Rest Stick—Knives—Easels—Vehicles—Mixed Tints||45|
|Oil Photo.—Miniature or Cameo Oil—Improved Method—Treating the Photograph—Paste Preparation—The Glass Cleaning—Colors Applied—Wedges—Caution—Directions for Coloring—Second Method—Ivory Type or Mezzotint—Mounting the Photograph—Materials Used—Another Plan||55|
|Photo Painting in Water Colors.—Selecting Photograph—Preparing the Photo—Colors Used—Coloring Background, Face, Eyes, Mouth, Hair, Clothing—Shadowing||60|
|Russian or Egyptian Method.—To Produce First Class Picture—Applying Colors—Palette—Liquid Colors Used—Brushes||63|
|Making Photographs.—Gelatine Dry-plate Process—The Outfit—Filling the Plate-Holder—Taking the Picture—Making Negatives—Chemical Outfit—Directions for Using Chemicals—Instructions Summarized—Making Prints from Negatives—Sensitized Paper Prints—Toning Process—Mounting Pictures||65|
|Draughtsmen’s Sensitive Paper for Copying Drawings.—Directions—How to Use—Printing by Exposure||70|
|Wood Painting.—From the German—General Preliminaries—Requisites—Colors—Transferring the Drawing on Wood—Enlarging and Reducing Designs—Divisions of Wood Surface—Tracing and Transferring Designs—Fixing Transferred Design—Coloring—Retouching—Wood Articles—Polishing Designs||71|
|Crystal, or Oriental Painting.—Materials Used—Colors Used—Directions||83|
|Antique Italian Landscape Painting.—Style of the Painting—Transferring—Quality of the Glass Used—Materials—Directions—Paints Used||85|
|Grecian Oil Painting.—Selecting the Engraving—Applications—Method of Painting—Mixing the Paints—Eyes, Hair, Flesh—Suggestions—Colors—Brushes||87|
|Ornamental Glass Sign Work.—Lettering Door Plates—Ornamenting Glass Work, Boxes, etc.—Instructions—Lettering the Glass—Holding the Letters—Next Process—Remaining Directions—Articles Used—Note||89|
|Vitremanie.—Easy and Inexpensive Decoration of Windows, Churches, Public Buildings, Private Houses, etc.—Supersedes Diaphanie—Defects of Diaphanie—Materials Used in Vitremanie—Simple Instructions—Applying the Design—Removing the Paper—Arranging the Designs||91|
|Diaphanie.—Similarity to Decalcomanie—Materials Required—The Application—Designs Used||93|
|Painting on Silk.—Satin and Silk—Its Beauty and Popularity—Transferring—Painting Directions—Using Colors Lightly—Raised Work—Colors Used—Bringing out the Picture||94|
|Staining Wood and Ivory.—Yellow Mahogany—Black, Red, Blue, Purple—Acids and Materials Used||96|
|Crystalline Surfaces.—Paper, Wood, and Glass—Mixture Used—Application—Directions||97|
|China Painting.—On China, Porcelain, Earthenware, and Enamel—Colors Used—Process of Burning In—Tracing and Drawing—First Method—Second Method—Third Method—Cleaning Brushes—Composition, Use, and Mixing of Colors—Classification of Colors—Tests—Fusibility—Thickness—Mediums—Conduct of the Work—Special Information Concerning Painting Colors—Mode of Use—Mixtures—Concordance of Enamel with Moist and Oil Colors—Technical Names||99|
|Monochrome.—China Painting—Painting on Porcelain or Earthenware—Tints of Monochromes—Sketching In—Painting the Head—Hair—Flesh Tints—Drapery—Retouching—M. Lacroix’s Colors—Finishing the Monochrome—General Suggestions||111|
|China Painting.—Painting the Head in Colors on Porcelain—Drawing and Sketching In—Highly Colored Faces—Cast Shadows—Painting the Lips—Blue Eyes—Fair Hair—Colored Draperies—The Palette||115|
|China Painting.—Style of Boucher—Flowers, Fruits, Birds and Landscape on Porcelain—Retouching Leaves—Peaches—Instructions on Landscapes—The Sky—Trunks of Trees—Branches—Houses—Ground—Water—Strengthening Touches—Directions for Packing||118|
|Terra Cotta Painting.—Enamel, Oil and Water Color Painting on Terra Cotta—Special Instructions—Materials and Brushes Used||123|
|Burning In.—Mineral Decalcomanie—New and Beautiful Art—Transferring Pictures to China and Other Ware—Imitating Exactly Beautiful Painting—Directions, Materials Required, Designs, Numbers, Prices||126|
|Natural Flowers.—Preservation—Hot Water System—Sandwich Island Process—Sand Drying Method—Last Process||129|