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The Heart of Asia A history of Russian Turkestan and the Central Asian Khanates from the earliest times

The Heart of Asia
A history of Russian Turkestan and the Central Asian Khanates from the earliest times
Title: The Heart of Asia A history of Russian Turkestan and the Central Asian Khanates from the earliest times
Release Date: 2018-08-23
Type book: Text
Copyright Status: Public domain in the USA.
Date added: 27 March 2019
Count views: 66
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Transcriber’s Notes

Cover created by Transcriber, using artwork on the original cover; theresult has been placed in the Public Domain.

Transcriber’s notes, including explanations of howaccented text is represented, will be found after the Index.

GŪR AMĪR, THE MAUSOLEUM OF TAMERLANE

THE HEART OF ASIA

A History of Russian Turkestan
and the Central Asian Khanates
from the Earliest Times

BY

FRANCIS HENRY SKRINE
FORMERLY A MEMBER OF H.M. INDIAN CIVIL SERVICE

AND

EDWARD DENISON ROSS, Ph.D.
PROFESSOR OF PERSIAN AT UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON

WITH 19 ILLUSTRATIONS FROM SKETCHES BY VERESTCHAGIN
NUMEROUS PHOTOGRAPHS AND 2 MAPS

METHUEN & CO.
36 ESSEX STREET, W.C.
LONDON

1899


v

CONTENTS

PART I
FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE RUSSIAN OCCUPATION
CHAP.   PAGE
I. EARLIEST TIMES TO THE DEATH OF ALEXANDER 3
II. BACTRIANS AND PARTHIANS 10
III. THE HUNS AND THE YUÉ-CHI 14
IV. THE SĀSĀNIDES, THE EPHTHALITES, AND THE TURKS 22
V. THE RISE OF ISLAM AND INVASIONS OF THE ARABS 34
VI. THE FIRST EASTERN CAMPAIGNS OF KUTAYBA IBN MUSLIM 45
VII. KUTAYBA’S LAST CAMPAIGNS 56
VIII. KUTAYBA’S FALL AND DEATH 63
IX. KUTAYBA’S SUCCESSORS 67
X. NASR IBN SAYYĀR AND ABŪ MUSLIM 77
XI. KHORĀSĀN UNDER THE FIRST ABBĀSIDS 84
XII. THE CALIPHATES OF EL-MANSŪR, EL-HĀDI, AND HĀRŪN ER-RASHĪD 90
XIII. DECLINE OF THE CALIPHS’ AUTHORITY IN KHORĀSĀN. THE TĀHIRIDES 98
XIV. THE SAFFĀRIDES AND THE RISE OF THE SĀMĀNIDES 103
XV. THE SĀMĀNIDES 109
XVI. THE KARA-KHĀNIDES, OR UÏGHŪRS 114
XVII. THE GHAZNAVIDES AND THE RISE OF THE SELJŪKS 123
XVIII. THE SELJŪKS 129
XIX. SULTAN SANJAR AND THE KARA-KHITĀYS 136
XX. THE KHWĀRAZM-SHĀHS 144
XXI. CHINGIZ KHĀN 149
XXII. MONGOL INVASION OF CENTRAL ASIA 155
XXIII. THE LINE OF CHAGHATĀY 160
XXIV. TĪMŪR, THE GREAT AMĪR 165
XXV. THE SUCCESSORS OF TĪMŪR 173vi
XXVI. THE SHAYBĀNIDES 182
XXVII. THE HOUSE OF ASTRAKHAN 194
XXVIII. THE HOUSE OF MANGIT 204
XXIX. AMĪR NASRULLAH, A BOKHĀRAN NERO 211
PART II
RUSSIA IN CENTRAL ASIA
I. THE MAKING OF RUSSIA 225
II. CROSSING THE THRESHOLD OF ASIA 238
III. THE STRUGGLE WITH THE KHĀNATES 250
IV. TURKOMANIA AND THE TURKOMANS 262
V. THE LAST STEP IN ADVANCE 284
VI. THE CENTRAL ASIAN RAILWAYS 306
VII. TRANSCASPIA IN 1898 320
VIII. ASKABAD AND MERV 340
IX. BOKHĀRĀ, A PROTECTED NATIVE STATE 357
X. SAMARKAND 386
XI. FRIENDS OR FOES? 408
APPENDIX I 417
APPENDIX II 424
INDEX 429

vii

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

  PAGE
GŪR AMĪR, THE MAUSOLEUM OF TAMERLANE (VERESTCHAGIN) Frontispiece
SO-CALLED SARCOPHAGUS OF ALEXANDER IN CONSTANTINOPLE (photograph) 9
THE RAHLA, OR READING DESK, OUTSIDE THE MOSQUE OF BĪBĪ KHĀNŪM, SAMARKAND (photograph) 38
CENTRAL ASIAN TYPES (VERESTCHAGIN) 47
GENERAL VIEW OF BOKHĀRĀ (photograph) 66
RELIGIOUS MENDICANT, BOKHĀRĀ (VERESTCHAGIN) 92
A JEWISH CHILD OF BOKHĀRĀ (photograph) 106
CENTRAL ASIAN TYPES (VERESTCHAGIN) 124
CENTRAL ASIAN TYPES 126
MAUSOLEUM OF SULTAN SANJAR, OLD MERV (photograph) 138
NOMADS CHANGING CAMP (VERESTCHAGIN) 151
DERVISHES OF THE NAKSHABANDI ORDER 170
INTERIOR OF TAMERLANE’S MAUSOLEUM (photograph) 172
THE TOMB OF TAMERLANE 172
INTERIOR OF A KIRGHIZ TENT (VERESTCHAGIN) 183
DECORATIONS IN THE SHĀH ZINDA, SAMARKAND (photograph) 192
COURTYARD OF A HOUSE IN SAMARKAND 212
ENTRANCE TO THE SHĀH ZINDA, SAMARKAND 235
THE SEA OF SAND IN THE KARA-KUM DESERT (1) 263
THE SEA OF SAND IN THE KARA-KUM DESERT (2) 263
TURKOMAN MUSICIANS 283
VIEW FROM THE INTERIOR OF THE FORT OF GEOK TEPPE (photograph) 292viii
DIVANIS, OR DERVISHES (VERESTCHAGIN) 307
GENERAL KURAPATKINE (photograph) 323
A GROUP OF TURKOMANS AT ASKABAD STATION 345
RUINS OF OLD MERV 353
HINDUS OF BOKHĀRĀ 367
THE MINĀR KALĀN AT BOKHĀRĀ 374
PRISONERS OF THE AMĪR OF BOKHĀRĀ 376
A BOKHĀRĀ BEAUTY AND HER TWO CHILDREN 382
SHĪR DĀR MADRASA, SAMARKAND 390
THE BĪBĪ KHĀNŪM 392
THE MARKET NEAR BĪBĪ KHĀNŪM, SAMARKAND 398
BAZAAR POLITICS (VERESTCHAGIN) 414
MAPS
THE ADVANCE OF RUSSIA IN CENTRAL ASIA
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