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The Curious Lore of Precious Stones Being a description of their sentiments and folk lore etc. etc.

The Curious Lore of Precious Stones
Being a description of their sentiments and folk lore etc. etc.
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Title: The Curious Lore of Precious Stones Being a description of their sentiments and folk lore etc. etc.
Release Date: 2018-09-26
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Copyright Status: Public domain in the USA.
Date added: 27 March 2019
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Transcriber’s Notes

Obvious typographical errors have been silently corrected. Variationsin hyphenation and ligatures have been standardised but all otherspelling and punctuation remains unchanged.

Chapter and some section headings, together with dropped capitals areprinted in a black-letter font in the original. This has not been replicated.

Huntilite, in the index, possibly refers to Heliolite in the text,but it is not clear which is intended.


The Curious Lore of Precious Stones


LIPPINCOTT’S PRACTICAL BOOKS FOR
THE ENRICHMENT OF HOME LIFE


THE PRACTICAL BOOK OF DECORATIVE WALL-TREATMENTS.By Nancy McClelland.

THE PRACTICAL BOOK OF LEARNING DECORATION AND FURNITURE.By Edward Stratton Holloway.

THE PRACTICAL BOOK OF CHINAWARE. By Harold DonaldsonEberlein and Roger Wearne Ramsdell.

THE PRACTICAL BOOK OF TAPESTRIES. By George LelandHunter.

THE PRACTICAL BOOK OF OUTDOOR FLOWERS. By RichardsonWright, Editor of House and Garden.

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THE PRACTICAL BOOK OF PERIOD FURNITURE. By HaroldDonaldson Eberlein and Abbot McClure. Revised and Enlarged.

THE PRACTICAL BOOK OF ORIENTAL RUGS. By G. Griffin Lewis.

THE PRACTICAL BOOK OF AMERICAN ANTIQUES. By HaroldDonaldson Eberlein and Abbot McClure.

THE PRACTICAL BOOK OF ARCHITECTURE. By C. Matlack Price.

THE PRACTICAL BOOK OF ITALIAN, SPANISH AND PORTUGUESEFURNITURE. By Harold Donaldson Eberlein and Roger WearneRamsdell.


PHENOMENAL GEMS (GEMS EXHIBITING PHENOMENA)
From the J. P. Morgan Collection,
American Museum of Natural History, New York

A list of the 16 stones is found here


Title Page

The Curious Lore of
Precious Stones

BEING A DESCRIPTION OF THEIR SENTIMENTSAND FOLK LORE, SUPERSTITIONS,SYMBOLISM, MYSTICISM, USE IN MEDICINE,PROTECTION, PREVENTION, RELIGION, ANDDIVINATION. CRYSTAL GAZING, BIRTH-STONES,LUCKY STONES AND TALISMANS,ASTRAL, ZODIACAL, AND PLANETARY

BY
GEORGE FREDERICK KUNZ
A.M., Ph.D., D.Sc.

WITH 86 ILLUSTRATIONS IN COLOR, DOUBLETONE AND LINE

PHILADELPHIA & LONDON
J. B. Lippincott Company


COPYRIGHT, 1913, BY J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY
SIXTH IMPRESSION
PRINTED IN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA


WITH HEARTFELT APPRECIATION OF THE NOBLE SPIRIT THAT CONCEIVEDAND FOUNDED THE MORGAN-TIFFANY COLLECTION OF GEMSAND THE MORGAN-BEMENT COLLECTIONS OF MINERALS AND METEORITESOF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, AND THEMORGAN COLLECTION OF THE MUSÉE D’HISTOIRE NATURELLE OFPARIS, AND WHOSE KINDLY ADVICE AND ENCOURAGEMENT HAVEDONE SO MUCH FOR THE PRECIOUS STONE ART, THIS VOLUMEIS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED TO THE MEMORY OF THE LATE

J. PIERPONT MORGAN


v

Preface

THE love of precious stones is deeply implanted inthe human heart, and the cause of this must besought not only in their coloring and brilliancy but alsoin their durability. All the fair colors of flowers andfoliage, and even the blue of the sky and the glory of thesunset clouds, only last for a short time, and are subjectto continual change, but the sheen and coloration ofprecious stones are the same to-day as they were thousandsof years ago and will be for thousands of yearsto come. In a world of change, this permanence has acharm of its own that was early appreciated.

The object of this book is to indicate and illustratethe various ways in which precious stones have beenused at different times and among different peoples, andmore especially to explain some of the curious ideas andfancies that have gathered around them. Many of theseideas may seem strange enough to us now, and yet whenwe analyze them we find that they have their roots eitherin some intrinsic quality of the stones or else in an instinctiveappreciation of their symbolical significance.Through manifold transformations this symbolism haspersisted to the present day.

The same thing may be said in regard to the varioussuperstitions connected with gems. Our scientific knowledgeof cause and effect may prevent us from acceptingany of the fanciful notions of the physicians and astrologersof the olden time; nevertheless, the possessionof a necklace or a ring adorned with brilliant diamonds,fair pearls, warm, glowing rubies, or celestial-huedsapphires will to-day make a woman’s heart beat fasterviand bring a blush of pleasure to her cheek. Life willseem better worth living to her; and, indeed, this is nodelusion, for life is what our thought makes it, and joyis born of gratified desire. Hence nothing that contributesto increasing the sum of innocent pleasuresshould be disdained; and surely no pleasure can be moreinnocent and justifiable than that inspired by the possessionof beautiful natural objects.

The author, who possesses what is believed to be themost comprehensive private library on this subject, hasobtained many references from material which he hasbeen gathering during the past twenty-five years. Manyof the types exist in the collection of folk-lore preciousstones exhibited at the World’s Columbian Exposition in1893, and now in the Field Museum of Natural Historyin Chicago. Other types are drawn from the Morgan Collectionexhibited at the Paris Expositions of 1889 and1900, which, with additions, is now in Morgan Hall, in theAmerican Museum of Natural History, New York City.

Other prominent references are the collection of preciousstones in the California Midwinter MemorialMuseum, in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco; theTiffany collection of precious stones, exhibited at theAtlanta Exposition of 1894, now in the National Museumin Washington; the collection exhibited at the Pan-AmericanExposition, and presented to the Muséed’Histoire Naturelle, in Paris, by the late J. PierpontMorgan; the collection exhibited at the exposition heldin Portland, Oregon, in 1905; and the collection of gemsand precious stones exhibited at the Jamestown Exposition,1907. All of these collections, either entirelyor very largely, have been formed by the author.

Some references to sentiment connected with preciousstones are embodied in the little work, now in its 21stviiedition, entitled: “Natal Stones, Sentiments and SuperstitionsAssociated with Precious Stones,” compiled bythe writer, who has examined nearly all the principal collectionsin the United States, Europe, Mexico, Canada, andAsiatic Russia.

For courtesies, information and illustrations, I am indebtedto the following, to whom my thanks are due:

Prof. Taw Sein Ko, Superintendent of the ArchæologicalSurvey, of Burma; Dr. T. Wada, of Tokyo, Japan;Dr. G. O. Clerc, President of the Société Ouralienne desAmis des Sciences Naturelles, Ekaterinebourg, Russia;Dr. Charles Braddock, late Medical Inspector to the Kingof Siam; Sir Charles Hercules Reed, Curator of Archæology,and Dr. Ernest A. Wallis Budge, Egyptologist,British Museum, London; A. W. Feavearyear, Esq., London;Dr. Salomon Reinach, Director of the ArchaælogicalMuseum of St. Germain-en-Laye, France; Prof. GiuseppeBelucci, of the University of Perugia; Dr. Peter Jessen,Librarian of the Kunstgewerbe Museum, of Berlin; MissBelle DaCosta Green; Dr. Frederick Hirth, Chinese Professor,Columbia University, New York; Dr. ClarkWissler, Curator of Archæology, Dr. L. P. Gratacap,Curator of Mineralogy, American Museum of NaturalHistory; Dr. Berthold Laufer, Oriental Archæologist,and Dr. Oliver C. Farrington, Curator of Geology andMineralogy, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago;Hereward Carrington, Esq., Psychist, New York; Dr. W.Hayes Ward, Archæologist and Babylonian Scholar; Mrs.Henry Draper, New York; H. W. Kent, Esq., MetropolitanMuseum of Art, New York City; Consul GeneralMoser, Colombo, Ceylon; W. W. Blake, Mexico City, whohas done so much to encourage Mexican archæologicalinvestigation; the late A. Damour, of Paris, the greatpioneer of mineralogical archæology; the late Dr.viii A. B.

Meyer, of Dresden, who, more than anyone else, provedthat the Nephritfrage or the jade question was to besolved by chemical and mineralogical investigation; thelate Rajah Sir Sourindro Mohun Tagore, of Calcutta;and Dr. A. M. Lythgoe, Egyptologist, MetropolitanMuseum of Art.

G. F. K.

September, 1913.


ix

Contents

CHAPTER PAGE
I. Superstitions and their Sources 1
II. On the Use of Precious and Semi-precious Stones asTalismans and Amulets 19
III. On the Talismanic Use of Special Stones 51
IV. On the Use of Engraved and Carved Gems as Talismans 115
V. On Ominous and Luminous Stones 143
VI. On Crystal Balls and Crystal Gazing 176
VII. Religious Uses of Precious Stones, Pagan, Hebrew, andChristian 225
VIII. On the High-priest’s Breastplate 275
IX. Birth-stones 307
X. Planetary and Astral Influences of Precious Stones 338
XI. On the Therapeutic Use of Precious and Semi-preciousStones 367

xi

Illustrations

COLOR PLATES
PAGE
Phenomenal Gems (Gems Exhibiting Phenomena) Frontispiece.
Maharaja Runjit Singh, with Pearls and Gems 42
Cardinal Farley’s Ring,—Sapphire with Diamonds 104
Gems from the Morgan-Tiffany Collection 107
Self-prints of Diamonds, Showing Phosphorescence 170
Cross, Attached as Pendant to the Crown of the Gothic KingReccesvinthus (649-672 A.D.) 293
DOUBLETONES
Rock-crystal Amulet set in Silver 10
Rock-crystal Placque, Ancient Mexican 10
Necklaces from Egypt. First Century 20
Mosaics of Turquoise and Enamelled Carnelian Beads 26
Necklaces from Egypt 37
African Agate Charms 54
Amber Ornaments 58
Chalcedony Votive Charm from Mexico 65
Curious Altar of Powalawa Indians of Arizona 65
Kabyle Jewelry 68
Jasper Pendant 93
Piece of Natural Loadstone for Medicinal Purposes 93
Aragonite Pendant 93
Obsidian Mask, from the Fayoum, Egypt 99
Turquoise Necklace, Thibet 110
Phœnician Scarab, with Engraved Scorpion 123
Ancient Babylonian Cylinder Impression, Bearing Figures of theGod Nebo and a Worshipper, and Symbols of Sun and Moon 123
A Small Jade Celt Engraved with Gnostic Inscriptions in theFourth Century 123
Moss Agate Mocha Stones, Hindoostan 132
Agates Used as Votive Charms and Set in Rings 149
Rock-crystal Ball Penetrated by Crystals of Rutile 176
Glass Ball, Perforated and Mounted in Metal 183
Ball of Jet, Perforated and Mounted in Metal 183
Eye Agate, Showing a Number of Circular Markings 183
Dr. Dee’s Shew Stone 190xii
Obsidian Mirror, with Native Textile String 190
Rock-crystal Spheres and Natural Cross 196
Babylonian Cylinders and Persian Beads 204
Rock-crystal Spheres with Japanese Mountings 209
Crystal Ball, Supported by Bronze Dragon 217
Method of Grinding Crystal Balls and Other Hard Stone Objectsin Germany and France 219
Japanese Method of Chipping, Grinding and Polishing Rock-crystalBalls 219
Rock-crystal Sphere with Three-figure Mounting 221
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