The Anatomy of Vegetables Begun With a General Account of Vegetation founded thereon
Thursday, Novemb. 9. 1671.
At a Meeting of the Council
of the R. Society.
That the Discoursepresented to theR. Society, Entitul’d, TheAnatomy of Vegetablesbegun, with a GeneralAccompt of Vegetablesthereon, By N. Grew,M.D. be Printed by SpencerHickman, one of thePrinters of the R. Society.
By NEHEMIAH GREW, M. D.
and Fellow of the Royal Society.
Printed for Spencer Hickman, Printer
to the R. Society, at the Rose
in S. Pauls Church-Yard, 1672.
President & Fellows
Is most Humbly
Lord Bishop of
I hope your pardon,if while you areholding that Best ofBooks in one Hand, I herepresent some Pages ofthat of Nature into yourother: Especially sinceyour Lordship knowethvery well, how excellenta Commentary This is onthe Former; by which,in part God reads theWorld his own Definition,and their Duty tohim.
But if this Address, myLord, may be thoughtcongruous, ’tis yet morejust; and that I should letyour Lordship, and othersknow, how much, andhow deservedly I resentyour extraordinary Favours:Particularly thatyou were pleased so farto animate my Endeavourstowards the publishingthe following Observations.Many whereof,and most belongingto the First Chapter, havingnow lain dormantnear seven years; and yetmight perhaps have socontinued, had not yourLordships Eye at lengthcreated Light upon them.In doing which, you havegiven one, amongst thosemany Tokens, of as wellyour readiness to promotelearning and knowledgeby the hands of others;as your high Abilities todo it by your own. Bothwhich are so manifest inyour Lordship, that likethe first Principles of MathematicalScience, theyare not so much to be asserted,because knownand granted by all.
The Considerationwhereof, my Lord, maymake me not only just inowning of your Favours,but also most Ambitiousof your Patronage: whichyet to bespeak, I must confessI cannot well. Notthat I think what is goodand valuable, is alwaies itsown best Advocate; forI know that the Censuresof men are humorous andvariable, and that oneAge must have leave tofrown on those Books,which another will do nothingless than kiss andembrace. But chieflyfor this Reason, lest Ishould so much as seemdesirous of your LordshipsSolliciting my Causeas to all I have said: Foras it is your Glory, thatyou like not so to shine, asto put out the least Star;so were it to your Dishonourto borrow yourName to illustrate theSpots, though of themost conspicuous.
Of what antiquity theAnatomy of Animalsis, and how great havebeen its Improvementsof later years, is wellknown. That of Vegetables is asubject which from all Ages to thisday hath not only lain by uncultivated;but for ought I know, exceptsome Observations of some of our ownCountrey-men, hath not been so muchas thought upon; whether for thatthe World hath been more enamouredwith the former, or pity to humanefrailty hath more obliged to it, orother Reasons, I need not enquire.
But considering that both came atfirst out of the same Hand, and aretherefore the Contrivances of thesame Wisdom; I thence fully assuredmy self, that it could not be a vainDesign, though possibly unsuccessful,to seek it in both.
In the prosecution hereof, how farI have gone, I neither judge my self,nor leave it to any one else to do it;because no man knows how far wehave yet to go, or are capable of going.Nor is there any thing whichstarves and stinteth the growth ofknowledge more, than such Determinations,whether we speak or conceitthem only.
What we have performed thus far,lieth, for the most part, open to theuse and improvement of all men. Onlyin some places, and chiefly in theThird Chapter, we have taken in thehelp of Glasses; wherein, after wehad finished the whole Composure,some Observations made by thatIngenious and Learned PersonMr. Hook, a Worthy Member of theRoyal Society, my much HonouredFriend, and by him communicated tome, were super-added: As likewisesome others also Microscopical, ofmy own, which his gave me the occasionof making.
Those that shall think fit to examine,as well as to peruse these Observations,we advertise them, First,That they begin, and so proceed tillthey end again, with the Seed: Forthey will hardly be able to avoid Errourand Misapprehension, if eitherpartial or preposterous in their Enquiries.Next, That they confinenot their Enquiries to one time ofthe Year; but to make them in severalSeasons, wherein the Parts of aVegetable may be seen in their severalEstates. And then, That theyneglect not the comparative Anatomy;for as some things are betterseen in one estate, so in one Vegetable,than another.
What, upon Observation alreadymade, we have erected, as they arenot Sticks and Straws; so neitherdo we assure all to be of the best Oak.How Dogmatical soever my Assertionsmay seem to be, yet do I not affectthe unreasonable Tyranny of obtrudingupon the Faith of any. He thatspeaketh Reason, may be rather satisfied,in being understood, than believed.
Of the Seed as Vegetating.
The Method propounded. 1, 2.The Garden-Bean dissected. 2.The two Coats thereof. 2, 3. TheForamen in the outer Coat, 3, 4.What generally observable of theCovers of the Seed, 4. The mainBody of the Seed, 5, 6. The Radicledistinguish’d. 6. The Plumedistinguish’d. 8. Described. 9. TheCuticle described. 10, 11. TheParenchyma. 11, 12. The InnerBody, how observed. 14, 16. Describ’d.15, 16, 17, 18.
The Coats how in common subservientto the Vegetation of theSeed. 20, 21. The Foramen, ofwhat use herein. 22. The use ofthe Inner Coat, and of the Cuticle.22. Of the Parenchyma. 23. Ofthe Seminal Root. 23, 24. Howthe Radicle first becomes a Root. 24,26. How after the Root the Plumevegetates. 26. How the Lobes. 27.That they do, demonstrated. 29, 32.How the Lobes thus turn into DissimilarLeaves. 32. What hence resolvable.32, 33. The use of theDissimilar Leaves.
Of the Root.
The Skin hereof, its Original.37. The Cortical Body, its Original.37. Description. 37, 38.Pores. 38. Proportions. 39. The LignousBody, its Original. 39. Describedby its Pores, 40. Its Proportions.42. The Insertment, its original.42. Description. 43.Pores. 43. Number and size. 44.A fuller description hereof, withthat of the Osculations of the lignousBody. 44, 45. The Pith, itsoriginal sometimes from the Seed.46. Sometimes from the CorticalBody. 47, 49. Its Pores. 49. Proportions.49, 50. Fibres of the lignousBody therein. 50. The Pithof those Fibres. 51.
How the Root grows, and the useof the Skin, Cortical and lignousBody thereto. 51, 54. How itgroweth in length. 55. By whatmeans it descends. 56, 57. Howit grows in breadth. 58. And thePith how thus framed. 59. Theuse of the Pith. 60, 61. Of theInsertment. 61, 62. The joint serviceof all the Parts. 63, 65.
Of the Trunk.
The Skin, its original. 67. Theoriginal of the Cortical Body.67. Of the lignous. 68. Of theInsertment and Pith. 68. The LatitudinalShooting of the lignousBody, wherein observable. 69.The Pores of the lignous Body,where and how most remarkable.70. The Pith of the same Pores. 70.A lesser sort of Pores. 71. A thirdsort only visible through a Microscope.Observed in Wood or Char-coal.71. Observed in the Fibresof the Trunks of Plants. 72. 73.The Insertions where more visible.73, 74. The smaller Insertions,only visible through a Microscope.74, 75. The Pores of the Insertions.76. Of the Pith. 77, 79.
How the Trunk ascends. 80. 81.The disposition of its Parts consequentto that Ascent. 81, 82. Consequentto the different Nature ofthe Sap. 83, 84. The effects ofthe said Differences. 84, 89. Whichway, and how the Sap ascends. 89-98.
Of Trunk-Roots and Claspers.
Of the Germen, Branch,and Leaf.
The Parts of the Germen andBranch the same with those ofthe Trunk. 104, 105. The mannerof their growth. 105, 107. Hownourished. 107. And the use ofKnots. 108. How secur’d. 109. TheParts of a Leaf. 110. The Positionsthe Fibres of the Stalks ofLeaves. 110, 111. The visiblecause of the different shape ofLeaves. 112. And of their beingflat. 113. The Foulds of Leaves,their kinds and Use. 114-118.The Protections of Leaves. 119,120. The use of the Leaf. 120, 123.
Of Thorns, Hairs andGlobulets.
Of the Flower.
Its Impalement of divers kinds.129, 130. Their use. 130, 132.The Foliation, its nature. 132.Foulds. 133, 134. Protections.135. Downs. 135. Globulets.136. Its Use. 137, 139. TheAttire of two kinds. The Descriptionof the first. 140, 142. Ofthe other. 143, 145. Their use.145-148.
Of the Fruit.
Of the Seed in its state ofGeneration.
The Case, its Figures. 168. Theouter Coat, its Figures. 170.Various Surface. 170, 171. AndMucilages. 171, 172. The natureof the outer Coat. 172. Its Original.173, 174. The Original ofthe inner. 174. Its Nature. 175,176. The Secondine. 177, 178.The Colliquamentum herein. 178.The Navel Fibres. 179, 180.
In the Generation of the Seed,the Sap first prepared in the Seed-Branch.181. Next in the innerCoat. 182. With the help of theouter. 182. The use of the Secondine.183, 184. Of the Ramuletsof the Seed-Branch. ib. Oftheir Inosculation. ib. How theColliquamentum becometh a Parenchyma.185, 186.
Cl. Glissonius in Prolegomenispræfixis Libro deHepatis Anatomia, c. 1.
Plantæ quoque in hunccensum (sc. Anatomicum)veniunt. Variaenim partium textura,& differentiis constant: &proculdubio ex accurataearundem diffectione, utilesvalde Observationesnobis exurgerent; præstaretq;in illis (inferiorislicet ordinis) rebus examinandisoperam impendere,quam in transcribendis(ut sæpe fit) aliorum laboribus,inutiliter ætatemtransigere. Quippe, hocpacto, ignavarum apummore, aliena duntaxat alveariaexpilamus, nihilq;bono publico adjicimus.
To be added and corrected.
Pag. 8. l. 15. after must, adde upon theSprouting of the Bean. p. 12. l.23. after dense, adde and thence their differentTinctures. p. 18. l. 13. after that,adde when. p. 20. l. 8. for the, read an.p. 56, l. 8. r. once. p. 90. l. 11. dele as.p. 91. l. 12. r. older. p. 120. l. 11. afterall, r. is. p. 134. l. 11. r. Convolvulus.p. 143. l. 10. r. ever. p. 145. l. 14. fornot, r. or. p. 159. l. 8. for by, r. to. p. 160.l. 18. dele not. p. 185. l. 14. after therewith,r. the. dele the former the.
In some Copies.
The Reader is desired to excuse the misplacingof the Figures by the Graver, in theAuthors absence.
The above additions and corrections have been made, and in additionthe following changes were made to correct suspected printing errors:
Contents, “Coliquamentum” changed to “Colliquamentum” (The Colliquamentum herein.)
Contents, “subsetvient” changed to “subservient” (how in common subservient)