Cassell's History of England, Vol. V From the Peninsular War to the Death of Sir Robert Peel. The King's Edition
HISTORY OF ENGLAND
FROM THE WARS OF THE ROSES
TO THE GREAT REBELLION
WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS,
AND REMBRANDT PLATES
THE KING'S EDITION
CASSELL AND COMPANY, LIMITED
LONDON, NEW YORK, TORONTO AND MELBOURNE
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
REIGN OF GEORGE III. (continued). PAGE
Napoleon's Desire for an Heir—The Archduchess Maria Louisa—The Divorce determined upon—The Marriage—Napoleonquarrels with his Family—Abdication of Louis Buonaparte—Napoleon's bloated Empire—Affairs of Sweden—Choiceof Bernadotte as King—He forms an Alliance with Russia and Britain—His Breach with Napoleon—Insanityof George III.—Preparations for a Regency—Restrictions on the Power of the Regent—FutileNegotiations of the Prince of Wales with Grey and Grenville—Perceval continued in Power—The King'sSpeech—Reinstatement of the Duke of York—The Currency Question—Its Effect on the Continent—Wellington'sDifficulties—Massena's Retreat—His Defeat at Sabugal—Surrender of Badajoz to the French—Battle of Barrosa—Wellingtonand Massena—Battles of Fuentes d'Onoro and Albuera—Soult's Retreat—End of the Campaign—OurNaval Supremacy continues—Birth of an Heir to Napoleon—Elements of Resistance to his Despotism—Session of1812—Discussions on the Civil List—Bankes's Bill—Assassination of Perceval—Renewed Overtures to Grey andGrenville—Riots in the Manufacturing Districts—Wellington's Preparations—Capture of Ciudad Rodrigo andBadajoz—Wellington and Marmont—Battle of Salamanca—Wellington enters Madrid—Victor's Retreat—Incapacityof the Spaniards—The Sicilian Expedition—Wellington's Retreat—Its Difficulties—Wellington's Defence of hisTactics—A Pause in the War 1
THE REIGN OF GEORGE III. (continued).
Rancour of the Americans towards England—Their Admiration of Napoleon—The Right of Search and consequentDisputes—Madison's warlike Declaration—Opposition in Congress—Condition of Canada—Capture of Michilimachimac—AnArmistice—Repulse of the Invasion of Canada—Naval Engagements—Napoleon and the Czar determineon War—Attempts to dissuade Napoleon—Unpreparedness of Russia—Bernadotte's Advice to Alexander—Rashnessof Napoleon—Policy of Prussia, Austria and Turkey—Overtures to England and Russia—Napoleon goes to the Front—Hisextravagant Language—The War begins—Disillusion of the Poles—Difficulties of the Advance—Bagrationand Barclay de Tolly—Napoleon pushes on—Capture of Smolensk—Battle of Borodino—The Russians evacuateMoscow—Buonaparte occupies the City—Conflagrations burst out—Desperate Position of Affairs—Murat andKutusoff—Defeat of Murat—The Retreat begins—Its Horrors—Caution of Kutusoff—Passage of the Beresina—Napoleonleaves the Army—His Arrival in Paris—Results of the Campaign—England's Support of Russia—Closeof 1812—Wellington's improved Prospects—He advances against Joseph Buonaparte—Battle of Vittoria—Retreatof the French—Soult is sent against Wellington—The Battles of the Pyrenees—The Storming of San Sebastian—Wellingtonforbids Plundering—He goes into Winter-quarters—Campaign in the south-east of Spain—Napoleon'sEfforts to renew the Campaign—Desertion of Murat and Bernadotte—Alliance between Prussia and Russia—AustrianMediation fails—Early Successes of the Allies—Battle of Lützen—Napoleon's false Account of the Battle—Occupationof Hamburg by Davoust—Battle of Bautzen—Armistice of Pleisswitz—Failure of the Negotiations—TheFortification of Dresden—Successive Defeats of the French by the Allies—The Aid of England—Battle ofLeipsic—Retreat of the French across the Rhine—The French Yoke is thrown off—Castlereagh summonsEngland to fresh Exertions—Liberation of the Pope—Failure of Buonaparte's Attempt to restore Ferdinand—Wellington'sRemonstrance with the British Ministry—Battles of Orthez and Toulouse—Termination of theCampaign—Exhaustion of France—The Allies on the Frontier—Napoleon's final Efforts—The Congress of Châtillon—TheAllies advance on Paris—Surrender of the Capital—A Provisional Government appointed—Napoleon abdicatesin favour of his Son—His unconditional Abdication—Return of the Bourbons—Insecurity of their Power—Treatyof Paris—Bad Terms to England—Visit of the Monarchs to London 32
REIGN OF GEORGE III. (concluded).
The Congress at Vienna—Napoleon's Escape from Elba—Military Preparations—England supplies the Money—Wellingtonorganises his Army—Napoleon's Journey through France—His Entry into Paris—The Enemy gathers round him—Napoleon'sPreparations—The New Constitution—Positions of Wellington and Blucher—The Duchess of Richmond'sBall—Battles of Ligny and Quatre Bras—Blucher's Retreat—The Field of Waterloo—The Battle—Charge of the OldGuard—Arrival of the Prussians—The Retreat—French Assertions about the Battle refuted—Napoleon's Abdication—TheAllies march on Paris—End of the Hundred Days—The Emperor is sent to St. Helena—The War in America—Eventson the Canadian Frontier—Repeated Incapacity of Sir George Prevost—His Recall—Failure of AmericanDesigns on Canada—Capture of Washington by the British—Other Expeditions—Failure of the Expedition to NewOrleans—Anxiety of the United States for Peace—Mediation of the Czar—Treaty of Ghent—Execution of Ney and[vi]Labédoyère—Inability of Wellington to interfere—Murat's Attempt on Naples—His Execution—The Second Treatyof Paris—Final Conditions between France and the Allies—Remainder of the Third George's Reign—Corn Law of1815—General Distress—Riots and Political Meetings—The Storming of Algiers—Repressive Measures in Parliament—Suspensionof the Habeas Corpus Act—Secret Meetings in Lancashire—The Spy Oliver—The Derbyshire Insurrection—Refusalof Juries to convict—Suppression of seditious Writings—Circular to Lord-Lieutenant—The Flightof Cobbett—First Trial of Hone—The Trials before Lord Ellenborough—Bill for the Abolition of Sinecures—Deathof the Princess Charlotte—Opening of the Session of 1818—Repeal of the Suspension Act—Operation of the CornLaw—The Indemnity Bill—Its Passage through Parliament—Attempts at Reform—Marriages of the Dukes ofClarence, Cambridge, and Kent—Renewal of the Alien Act—Dissolution of Parliament and General Election—Strikein Manchester—Congress of Aix-la Chapelle—Raids of the Pindarrees—Lord Hastings determines to suppress them—Malcolm'sCampaign—Outbreak of Cholera—Campaign against the Peishwa—Pacification of the Mahratta district—ApparentProsperity of Great Britain in 1819—Opening of Parliament—Debates on the Royal Expenditure—Resumptionof Cash Payments—The Budget—Social Reforms—The Scottish Burghs—Roman Catholic Emancipationrejected—Weakness of the Government—Meeting at Manchester—The Peterloo Massacre—The Six Acts—The CatoStreet Conspiracy—Attempted Insurrection in Scotland—Trials of Hunt and his Associates—Death of George III. 87
PROGRESS OF THE NATION DURING THE REIGN OF GEORGE III.
Growth of Material Wealth—Condition of the Working Classes—The Charity Schools—Lethargy of the Church—Proposalto abolish Subscription to the Articles—A Bill for the further Relief of Dissenters—The Test and Corporation Acts—TheEfforts of Beaufoy and Lord Stanhope—Attempts to relieve the Quakers—Further Effort of Lord Stanhope—TheClaims of the Roman Catholics—Failure of the Efforts to obtain Catholic Emancipation—Lay Patronage in Scotland—TheScottish Episcopalians—Illustrious Dissenters—Religion in Wales and Ireland—Literature—The Novelists:Richardson, Fielding, Smollett, and Sterne—Minor and later Novelists—Scott—Historians: Hume, Robertson, andGibbon—Minor Historians—Miscellaneous Literature—Criticism, Theology, Biography, and Science—PeriodicalLiterature—The Drama and the Dramatists—Poetry: Collins, Shenstone, and Gray—Goldsmith and Churchill—MinorPoets—Percy's "Reliques," and Scott's "Border Minstrelsy"—Chatterton and Ossian—Johnson and Darwin—Crabbeand Cowper—Poetasters and Gifford—The Shakespeare Forgeries—Minor Satires—Burns—The LakeSchool: Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Southey—Scott, Campbell, Byron, Shelley, and Keats—Poets at the close ofthe Period—Improvement of Agricultural Science—Arthur Young—Drainage and Roots—Improvements in Road-making:Telford and Macadam—Brindley's and Telford's Canals—Bridges and Harbours—Iron Railways—Applicationof the Steam-Engine to Railways and Boats—Improvements in Machinery—Wedgwood—Manufacture of Glass—Collieries—Useof Coal in Iron-works—Improvements in various Manufactures—ScientificDiscoveries—Music—Architecture—Painting—Sculpture—Engraving—Coins and Coinage—Manners and Customs 157
THE REIGN OF GEORGE IV.
Accession of George IV.—Meeting of Parliament—General Election—Opening of the New Session—Dulness of Affairs—Broughamon Education—Queen Caroline—Omission of her Name from the Liturgy—She rejects the King's Proposals,and arrives in England—Attempts at a Compromise—The King orders an Inquiry—The Secret Committee—TheBill of Pains and Penalties—Arrival of the Queen in the House of Lords—Discussions on the Form of Procedure—Speechesof Denman and the Attorney-General—Evidence for the Prosecution—Brougham's Speech—Abandonment ofthe Bill—General Rejoicings—Violence of Party Feeling—Popularity of the Queen—Her Claim to be crowned refused—TheQueen's Attempt to enter the Abbey—Indiscretion of the Act—The Coronation and the Banquet—The subsequentScramble—Death of the Queen—Departure of her Body—The King's Visit to Ireland—A Royal Oration and itsenthusiastic Reception—The King and Lady Conyngham—Changes in the Government—Discontent of Eldon—Wellesleyin Ireland—Alarming State of the Country—Canning's Speech on Catholic Emancipation—ParliamentaryReform—Agricultural Distress and Finance—Eldon's Outbreak on the Marriage Bill—Suicide of Lord Londonderry—Sceneat his Funeral—Visit of George IV. to Scotland—Loyalty of Sir Walter Scott—Account of the Festivities—Peel'sLetter to Scott—Return of the King—Canning takes the Foreign Office and Leadership of the House of Commons—Huskissonjoins the Cabinet—The Duke of Wellington sent to Verona—His Instructions—Principles of theHoly Alliance—The Spanish Colonies—French Intervention in Spain—The Duke's Remonstrances with the FrenchKing—His Interview with the Czar—The Congress of Verona—Failure of Wellington to prevent Intervention in Spain—Vindicationof Canning's Policy in the Commons—He calls the New World into Existence 204
REIGN OF GEORGE IV. (continued).
Prosperity of the Manufacturers—Depression of Agriculture—Resumption of Cash Payments—A restricted Currency—TheBudget of 1823—Mr. Huskisson—Change of the Navigation Acts—Budget of 1824—Removal of the Duties on Wooland Silk—Repeal of the Spitalfields Act and the Combination Laws—Speculative Mania—The Crash—RemedialMeasures of the Government—Riots and Machine-breaking—Temporary Change in the Corn Laws—Emigration—Stateof Ireland—Efforts of Lord Wellesley—Condition of the Peasantry—Unlawful Societies—The Bottle Riot—Failure[vii]to obtain the Conviction of the Rioters—The Tithe Commutation Act—Revival of the Catholic Question—Peel'sViews—The Catholic Association and its Objects—Bill for its Suppression—Plunket's Speech—A new Associationformed—Rejection of Burdett's Resolution—Fears of the Moderates—General Election—Its Features—Inquiry into theBubble Companies—Death of the Duke of York—Canning's vigorous Policy in Portugal—Weakness of the Ministryand Illness of Liverpool—Who was to be his Successor?—Canning's Difficulties—Peel and the Old Tories resign—Stateof Canning's Health—His Arrangements completed—Opposition to Him—His Illness and Death—Collapse ofthe Goderich Ministry—Wellington forms an Administration—Eldon is omitted—The Battle of Navarino—"TheUntoward Event"—Resignation of the Canningites—Grievances of the Dissenters—Lord John Russell's Motionfor the Repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts—Peel's Reply—Progress of the Measure—Lord Eldon's Opposition—PublicRejoicings 237
THE REIGN OF GEORGE IV. (concluded).
Opinions of the Irish Government on the Catholic Question—Renewal of the Catholic Claims by Burdett—Vesey Fitzgeraldaccepts the Board of Trade—O'Connell opposes him for Clare—His Reputation—His Backers—Father Murphy'sSpeech—O'Connell to the Front—The Nomination—O'Connell's Speech—The Election—Return of O'Connell—Anglesey'sPrecautions—Peel's Reflections on the Clare Election—Anglesey describes the State of Ireland—Peelwishes to resign—The Duke wavers—Anglesey urges Concession—Insurrection probable—Wellington determines onRetreat—Why he and Peel did not resign—The Viceroy's Opinion—Military Organisation of the Peasantry—TheBrunswick Clubs—Perplexity of the Government—O'Connells "Moral Force"—The Liberator Clubs—Dawson'sSpeech—"No Popery" in England—The Morpeth Banquet—The Leinster Declaration—Wellington's Letter to Dr.Curtis—Anglesey's Correspondence with O'Connell—The Premier censures the Viceroy—Anglesey dismissed—He issucceeded by Northumberland—Difficulties with the King and the English Bishops—Peel determines to remain—HisViews communicated to the King—The King yields—Opening of the Session—Peel defeated at Oxford University—Suppressionof the Catholic Association—The Announcement in the King's Speech—Peel introduces the Relief Bill—Argumentsof the Opposition—The Bill passes the Commons—The Duke's Speech—It passes the Lords by largeMajorities—The King withdraws his Consent—He again yields—His Communication to Eldon—Numbers of theCatholics in Britain—The Duke's Duel with Winchilsea—Bill for the disfranchisement of "the Forties"—O'Connellpresents himself to be sworn—He refuses to take the Oaths—He is heard at the Bar—Fresh Election for Clare—O'Connell'snew Agitation—The Roman Catholic Hierarchy—Riots in the Manufacturing Districts—Attempt tomitigate the Game Laws—Affairs of Portugal—Negotiations with the Canningites—Pitched Battles in Ireland—Meetingof Parliament—Debate on the Address—Burdett's Attack on Wellington—The Opposition proposes Retrenchments—TheDuke's Economies—Prosecution of Mr. Alexander—Illness and Death of George IV. 268
REIGN OF WILLIAM IV.
Character of the new King—Position of the Ministry—Discussion in the Lords on a Regency—Brougham's Speech in theCommons—The King in London—Brougham's Slavery Speech—The Dissolution—Sketch of the July Revolution—ItsEffects in England—The Elections—Their Results in England and Ireland—Death of Huskisson—Disturbancesin England—The King's Speech—Declarations of Grey and Wellington on Reform—Broughams Notice—Effect ofthe Duke's Speech—Agitation in Ireland—And against the Police—Postponement of the King's Visit to the MansionHouse—Resignation of Wellington's Ministry—Grey forms a Ministry—Brougham's Position—The Ministry—Grey'sStatement—Agricultural England—Cobbett and Carlile—Affairs in Ireland—Lord Anglesey—His Struggle withO'Connell—O'Connell's Prosecution dropped—The Birmingham Political Union—Preparation of the Reform Bill—Itis entrusted to Lord John Russell—The Budget—The Bill introduced—The First Reading carried—Feeling in theCountry—The Second Reading carried—Gascoigne's Amendment—A Dissolution agreed upon—Scene in the Lords—ThePress—The Illuminations and Riots—The New Parliament—Discussions on the Dissolution and O'Connell—TheSecond Reform Bill—The Second Reading—The Bill in Committee—It is carried to the Lords—Debate on theSecond Reading—The Bill rejected—Popular Excitement—Lord Ebrington's Resolution—Prorogation of Parliament—LordJohn Russell's Declaration—The Bristol Riots—Colonel Brereton 312
REIGN OF WILLIAM IV. (continued).
The Coronation—Fears of Eminent Men—The Cholera—The Waverers—Lord John Russell introduces the third ReformBill—Its Progress through the Commons—The Second Reading carried in the Lords—Behind the Scenes—Feeling inthe Country—Disfranchisement Clauses postponed—Grey resigns—Ebrington's Resolution—Wellington attempts toform a Ministry—Popular fury—The Run on the Bank—Wellington abandons his post—Grey exacts the King'sConsent to the creation of Peers—The Opposition withdrawn—The Bill becomes Law—The Irish Reform Bill—TheBill in the Lords—The Scottish Reform Bill—Becomes Law—Result of the Reform Bills—Mr. Stanley in Ireland—TheTithe-proctor—The Church Cess—Tithe Legislation of 1831—Irish Education—Wyse's Report—Stanley's Bill—ItsProvisions for Religious Instruction—General Election—New Parliament—The Coercion Bill—The ChurchTemporalities Bill—The Poor Law Commission—Its Report—Sketch of the Poor Law System—Provisions of the PoorLaw Amendment Act—History of the Emancipation Movement—Mr. Stanley's Resolutions—Provisions of the Act of[viii]Emancipation—The Dorsetshire Labourers—The Copenhagen Fields Meeting—Other Meetings and Strikes—Sheiland Lord Althorp—O'Connell's Motion on the Union—Baron Smith—Littleton's Tithe Bill—Mr. Ward's Motion—Resignationof Mr. Stanley and his Friends—An Indiscreet Speech of the King's—The Debate on Mr. Ward's Motion—FinalCollapse of the Cabinet—Retrospect of Lord Grey's Ministry 343
REIGN OF WILLIAM IV. (continued).
The Remainder of the Session—The Coercion Bill carried—Rejection of the Tithes Bill—University Tests—Prorogation ofParliament—Brougham's Tour in Scotland—Burning of the Houses of Parliament—Fall of Melbourne's Ministry—Wellingtonsole Minister—Peel forms a Ministry—The Tamworth Manifesto—Dissolution and General Election—Mr.Abercromby elected Speaker—The Lichfield House Compact—Peel