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The Child's Book of Nature Three parts in one

The Child's Book of Nature
Three parts in one
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Title: The Child's Book of Nature Three parts in one
Release Date: 2018-12-07
Type book: Text
Copyright Status: Public domain in the USA.
Date added: 27 March 2019
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THE CHILD’S BOOK OF NATURE.

Transcriber’s Notes

3 Parts in one volume. Part I is numbered 1000 upwards; Part II is numbered 2000 upwards; Part III is numbered 3000 upwards.

Pagination starts with each section.

The cover image was created from the original all black cover with the title page superimposed onto it and is placed in the public domain.

Page 1021: pressents corrected to presents.

Page 3139: added ‘it’ to “while you are looking at it.”

Other minor printer’s errors have been silently corrected.

cover

Note.—The three parts of this book can behad in separate volumes by those who desire it. This will be advisable when thebook is to be used in teaching quite young children (from six to nine years ofage), especially in schools. It will take some time to go through with eachpart thoroughly, and the pupil had better, for various reasons, beintroduced to each in its order as a new book.


THE
CHILD’S BOOK OF NATURE.

Three Parts in One.


PART I. PLANTS.

PART II. ANIMALS.

PART III. AIR, WATER, HEAT, LIGHT, &c.


By WORTHINGTON HOOKER, M.D.

With Illustrations.

NEW YORK:

PUBLISHED BY HARPER & BROTHERS,

PEARL STREET, FRANKLIN SQUARE.

1882.


THE CHILD’S BOOK OF NATURE

FOR THE USE OF

FAMILIES AND SCHOOLS.

INTENDED TO AID MOTHERS AND TEACHERS IN TRAINING CHILDREN

IN THE OBSERVATION OF NATURE.

IN THREE PARTS.


PART I.—PLANTS.


By Dr. WORTHINGTON HOOKER.

THE CHILD’S BOOK OF NATURE. For the Use of Families and Schools; intended toaid Mothers and Teachers in training Children in the Observation of Nature. In threeParts. Illustrations. The Three Parts complete in one vol., Small 4to, Cloth, $1 00;Separately, Cloth, Part I., 40 cents; Parts II. and III., 44 cents each.

Part I. PLANTS.—Part II. ANIMALS—Part III. AIR, WATER, HEAT, LIGHT, &c.

FIRST BOOK IN CHEMISTRY. For the Use of Schools and Families. Revised Edition.Illustrations. Square 4to, Cloth, 44 cents.

NATURAL HISTORY. For the Use of Schools and Families. Illustrated by nearly 300Engravings. 12mo, Cloth, 90 cents.

SCIENCE FOR THE SCHOOL AND FAMILY.

Part I. NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. Illustrated by nearly 300 Engravings. 12mo,Cloth, 90 cents.

Part II. CHEMISTRY. Revised Edition. Illustrations. 12mo, Cloth, 90 cents.

Part III. MINERALOGY AND GEOLOGY. Illustrations. 12mo, Cloth, 90 cents.


Published by HARPER & BROTHERS, Franklin Square, N. Y.

Either of the above volumes will be sent by mail, postage prepaid, to any part of the UnitedStates or Canada, on receipt of the price.


Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven,by Harper & Brothers, in the Clerk’s Office of the District Court of the SouthernDistrict Court of New York.


PREFACE.

Children are busy observers of natural objects, and have many questionsto ask about them. But their inquisitive observation is commonlyrepressed, instead of being encouraged and guided. The chief reasonfor this unnatural course is, that parents and teachers are not inpossession of the information which is needed for the guidance ofchildren in the observation of nature. They have not themselves beentaught aright, and therefore are not able to teach others. In their owneducation the observation of nature has been almost entirely excluded;and they are, therefore, unprepared to teach a child in regard to thesimplest natural phenomena.

Here is a radical error in education. When we put a child into theschool-room, to be drilled in spelling, reading, arithmetic, geography,etc., we effectually shut him in from all the varied and interestingobjects of nature, which he is so naturally inclined to observe andstudy. These are very seldom made the subjects of instruction inchildhood. And even at the fireside the deficiency is nearly as greatas it is in the school-room.

A similar defect appears to a great extent through the whole course ofeducation. The study of the wonderful phenomena [viii]which are all aroundus and within us, is, for the most part, neglected, except by the fewwhose inclinations to it are so strong that they can not be repressed.This defect is well illustrated in a remark which was made by a motherin relation to her own education. When at school she stood at the headof her class, and excelled particularly in mathematics. Her remark was,that she every day regretted that much of the time she had given to thestudy of mathematics had not been spent in learning what would enableher to answer the continual questions of her children. Even when thenatural sciences are taught, the mode of teaching them is generallyineffectual. The knowledge which the mass of pupils in our higherschools gain of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, Botany, and Physiology,is very deficient.

There should be a thorough change in this respect in the whole courseof education, beginning in childhood. The natural sciences should bemade prominent among the studies even of young children, who, in otherwords, should be encouraged and guided in that observation of nature towhich they are generally so much inclined. In the different departmentsof natural science there are multitudes of facts or phenomena in whichchildren readily become interested, when they are properly explained.

In this little book my object is to supply the mother and the teacherwith the means of introducing the child into one department of naturalscience—that which relates to the vegetable world,[ ix]or vegetablephysiology. With this view, I have endeavored to select those pointsonly which the child will fully understand, and in which he will beinterested. But this selection has by no means shut me up within narrowlimits. I have been surprised at the amount of knowledge in thisinteresting study that can be satisfactorily communicated to the mindof a child. While the fundamental points in vegetable physiology arequite fully developed in this book, I have avoided as far as possibleall technical terms. These can be learned when the pupil becomes oldenough to profit by learning them. The facts, the phenomena, are whatthe child wants to understand; and these can be communicated in thesimplest language, so that a child of about seven or eight, or perhapseven six years, can readily be made to comprehend them.

I begin with the most simple and obvious facts—those which relate toflowers—and go on through fruits, seeds, leaves, roots, etc., step bystep, until, at the latter part of the book, the circulation of thesap, and other points at first view complicated, are made perfectlyintelligible. By this gradual unfolding of the subject, many pointsare made clear to the child, which are not fully understood by many ofthose who in riper years have studied botany; for in the common mode ofteaching this science the mere technicalities of it are made prominent,while the interesting facts which vegetable physiology presents to usin such variety receive but little attention.

The best time to use this book in teaching is during the summer,[ x]because then every thing can be illustrated by specimens from thefield and the garden, and the teacher can amplify upon what I havegiven. For example, when the lesson is to be on leaves, the teacher canrequest her scholars to bring as many different kinds of leaves as theycan find; and she can point out their differences after the same planthat I have adopted, but in a much more extended manner. Indeed, ifthe teacher catch herself the true spirit of observation, she will becontinually led in her teachings to add facts of her own gathering tothose which I have presented.

I believe that there are few terms in the book that can not be readilyunderstood by the child. A little explanation may sometimes benecessary on the part of the teacher, especially when the same wordis used as meaning more at one time than at another. For example,the word plant is used sometimes, as in the title of this book, toinclude every thing that is vegetable; while at another time it isused to distinguish certain forms of vegetables from others, as in theexpression plants and trees.

I have made such a division into chapters as will place each subjectby itself, and at the same time, for the most part, give lessons of aproper length for the learner. I have placed questions at the end ofeach chapter, for convenience in instruction. Of course the teacher orparent will vary them as she sees fit, to accommodate the capacities ofthose whom she teaches.

Worthington Hooker.


CONTENTS.

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CHAPTER   PAGE
I. OUR LOVE FOR FLOWERS 1013
II. MORE ABOUT OUR LOVE FOR FLOWERS 1019
III. HOW FLOWERS ARE MADE 1022
IV. THE COLORS OF FLOWERS 1025
V. THE PERFUME OF FLOWERS 1028
VI. THE SHAPES OF FLOWERS 1031
VII. HABITS OF FLOWERS 1037
VIII. MORE ABOUT THE HABITS OF FLOWERS 1040
IX. WHAT LIVE ON FLOWERS 1043
X. MORE ABOUT WHAT LIVE ON FLOWERS 1046
XI. WHAT THE BIBLE SAYS ABOUT FLOWERS 1049
XII. FRUITS 1052
XIII. MORE ABOUT FRUITS 1055
XIV. WHAT SEEDS ARE FOR 1058
XV. LIFE IN THE SEED 1062
XVI. HOW SEEDS ARE SCATTERED 1064
XVII. LEAVES 1067
XVIII. MORE ABOUT LEAVES 1071
XIX. THE SAP IN LEAVES 1076
XX. THE USES OF LEAVES 1080
XXI. LEAVES IN THE AUTUMN 1083
XXII. LEAF-BUDS 1086
XXIII. THE COVERINGS OF THE BUDS 1090[xii]
XXIV. WHAT ROOTS ARE FOR 1092
XXV. MORE ABOUT ROOTS 1095
XXVI. STALKS AND TRUNKS 1100
XXVII. THE BARK OF TREES AND SHRUBS 1103
XXVIII.