Fences, Gates and Bridges A Practical Manual
The transcribers’notes follow the text.
A PRACTICAL MANUAL.
THREE HUNDRED ILLUSTRATIONS.
ORANGE JUDD COMPANY,
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1887, by the
O. JUDD CO.,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
It is authoritatively stated that the building and maintenanceof the farm fences in the United States have cost more than theconstruction of the farm buildings. Be this as it may, while largenumbers of works have been written upon rural architecture webelieve this is the first publication specially devoted to Fences,Gates and Bridges. It aims to be a practical work, showing the“evolution” of the fence from the road barrier of logs,brush or sods to the latest improved forms of barbed wire. The numerousillustrations are mainly representations of fences, gates, etc., inactual use. The chapter on fence law is necessarily condensed. Thevarious judicial decisions upon the subject alone would fill a largevolume.
This little work, the first and only one of its character, is givento the public in the confident hope that it will prove specially usefulto farmers and village residents.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Virginia Rail Fence; Laying a Rail Fence; Staking and Wiring; A Fence of Stakes and Riders; A Pole Fence; Fences for Soil Liable to Heave; Other Primitive Fences.
How a Stone Wall Should be Built; Building a Stone Fence; Truck for Moving Stones; Re-inforcing a Stone Wall; A Composite Fence; A Prairie Sod Fence.
Building Board Fences; Fences for Land Subject to Overflow; A Fence-Board Holder; Re-inforcing a Board Fence.
A Good Garden Fence; A Southern Picket Fence; Fences of Split Pickets; Ornamental Picket Fences; Rustic Picket Fences; Light Picket Fences; Hand-made Wire and Picket Fences; Fence of Wire and Pickets.
Statistics and Forms of Barb Wire; How to Set Barb Wire Fence; Unreeling and Stretching Barb Wire; Wire-Stretchers; Building Wire Fence on Uneven Ground.
Combined Wire and Board Fence; A Bracketed Fence; Dog-Proof Fence.
The Best Hedge Plants; Planting and Care of Osage Hedges; Hedges for the South; Ornamental Hedges and Screens.
Portable Board Fences; Portable Fences of Poles and Wire; Portable Fences for Windbreaks; Portable Poultry Fences; Portable Folding Fence; Temporary Wire and Iron Fences.
Flood Fences; Portable Wire Fence; Watering Place in a Creek.
Making Fence Posts; A Post Holder; Driving Fence Posts by Hand; To Drive Posts Without Splitting; A Powerful Post Driver; Setting a Gate Post; Live Posts; Mending a Split Post; Hook for Wiring Posts; Drawing Fence Posts; Lifting Posts by Hand; Splicing Fence Posts; Application of Wood Preservatives; Iron Fence Posts.
Wooden Gates; A Very Substantial Farm Gate; A Strong and Neat Gate; Light Iron Gates; Self-closing Gates; Gate for a Village Lot; A Chinese Door or Gate Spring; Lifting Gates; Rustic Gates; Balance Gates; Gate for Snowy Weather; West India Farm Gates; Gate Hinges of Wood; Double Gates; Double Latched Gates; Improved Slide Gate; A Combined Hinge and Sliding Gate; Gates of Wood and Wire; A Good and Cheap Farm Gate; An Improved Wire Gate; Taking up the Sag in Gates; Good Gate Latches; Top Hinge of Farm Gate; Gateways in Wire Fence.
Iron Wickets; Wooden Wickets; Stiles for Wire Fences.
Fencing Out or Fencing In; Division Fences; Highway Fences; What is a Legal Fence? Railroad Fences.
Strength of Bridges; Braces and Trusses; Abutments, Piers and Railings; Bridges for Gullies; Road Culverts.
FENCES, GATES AND BRIDGES.
RAIL AND OTHER PRIMITIVE WOOD FENCES.
VIRGINIA RAIL FENCE.
The zigzag rail fence was almost universally adopted by the settlersin the heavily timbered portions of the country, and countlessthousands of miles of it still exist, though the increasing scarcityof timber has brought other styles of fencing largely into use.Properly built, of good material, on a clear, solid bed, kept freefrom bushes and other growth to shade it and cause it to rot, therail fence is as cheap as any, and as effective and durable as canreasonably be desired. Good chestnut, oak, cedar, or juniper rails, ororiginal growth heart pine, will last from fifty to a hundred years,so that material of this sort, once in hand, will serve one or twogenerations. This fence, ten rails high, and propped with two railsat each corner, requires twelve rails to the panel. If the fence bedis five feet wide, and the rails are eleven feet long, and are lappedabout a foot at the locks, one panel will extend about eight feet indirect line. This takes seven thousand nine hundred and twenty rails,or about eight thousand rails to the mile. For a temporary fence,one that can be put up and taken down in a
LAYING A RAIL FENCE.
It is much better, both for good looks and economy, to have thecorners of a rail fence on each side in line with each other. Thismay be accomplished by means of a very simple implement, shown infigure 2. It consists of a small pole, eightfeet long, sharpened at the lower end. A horizontal arm of a lengthequal to half the width of the fence from extreme outside of corners,is fastened to the long pole at right angles, near the lower end.Sometimes a sapling may be found with a limb growing nearly at rightangles, which will serve the purpose. Before beginning the fence,stakes are set at intervals along the middle of the line it is tooccupy. To begin, the gauge, as shown in figure2, is set in line with the stakes, and the horizontal arm isswung outwardly at right angles to the line of fence. A stone orblock to support the first