» » English Wayfaring Life in the Middle Ages (XIVth Century)

English Wayfaring Life in the Middle Ages (XIVth Century)

English Wayfaring Life in the Middle Ages
(XIVth Century)
Category:
Title: English Wayfaring Life in the Middle Ages (XIVth Century)
Release Date: 2018-12-24
Type book: Text
Copyright Status: Public domain in the USA.
Date added: 27 March 2019
Count views: 35
Read book
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ... 69

ENGLISHWAYFARING LIFE in the MIDDLE AGES(XIVth Cen­tury)
by J. J. JUSSERAND

1. ENGLISH KNIGHTS TRAVELLING, AUGUST, 1399.
(From the MS. Harleian, 1319, painted circaA.D. 1400.)
ENGLISH
WAYFARING LIFE
IN THE MIDDLE AGES
(XIVth CENTURY)
BY
J. J. JUSSERAND
TRANSLATEDFROM THEFRENCHBY
LUCY TOULMIN SMITH
A new Edition revised and enlarged by the Author
T. FISHER UNWIN LTD
LONDON: ADELPHI TERRACE
First Edition 1889
Second Impression 1889
Third Impression 1889
Fourth Impression 1891
Fifth Impression 1896
Sixth Impression 1899
Seventh Impression 1901
Eighth Impression 1902
Ninth Impression 1909
Second Edition (Tenth Impression) 1920
Eleventh Impression 1921

 

We know Egypt, thanks to her tombs, andwe know Rome, thanks to Pompeii, in these modern days, better thanwe know the Middle Ages of Europe and the life of an ordinary manduring that period. We cannot hope to find in any corner of France orEngland a Pompeii, catacombs, or pyramids. In our countries the humantorrent has never ceased flowing; rapid and tumultuous in its course,it has at no time ensured the preservation of the past by deposits ofquiet ooze.

Yet, this common life of our ancestors, is it indiscernible,impossible to reconstruct? is that of kings and princes aloneaccessible to our view through the remoteness of ages, like thosehuge monuments which men see from afar when they cannotdistinguish the houses in a distant city? Surely not. But toreach the heart of the nation, to get into touch with the greaternumber, a patient and extended inquiry is necessary. To makethis usefully, one must break more or less completely with theold habit of taking the ideas of every-day life in the MiddleAges only from the descriptions, the satires, or the eulogies ofpoets. Literature is no doubt of valuable help in these restorations,but it is not the only, nor even the principal source ofinformation. Poets embellish, imagine, colour, or transform;we must not accept their statements without checking them.

To check them is what we can do. We mayhave no such {8}burial grounds to explore as in Egypt, nor a whole town to bring tolight as at Pompeii, but we have what is worth almost as much:the incomparable depositories of the Records of old England.Immense strides have been made, especially within the lasthundred years, to render their contents public. Thousandsof documents have been printed or analysed, and the work isstill continuing; indeed, looking at the progress made of late,a feeling of wonder cannot be repressed at the premature alarmof historians like Robertson, who wrote in 1769: “Theuniversal progress of science during the two last centuries,the art of printing, and other obvious causes, have filled Europewith such a multiplicity of histories, and with such a vastcollection of historical materials, that the term of human lifeis too short for the study or even the perusal of them.” Thefield of research has never ceased to widen, while the boundariesof human life scarcely recede at all; but students comprehendthat the best means of rendering service is to impose limits onthemselves and to study by preference separate points or periodsof the immense problem to the best of their power. The workof unearthing is so far advanced that it is possible usefully tosift the riches drawn from these new catacombs.

At first sight all these petitions, these year-books full ofreports of lawsuits, these long rows of statutes and ordinancesseem the coldest things in the world, the most devoid of life.They are not even mummies or skeletons, they look as if theywere but the dust of old bones. Yet to judge of them thuswere to judge in a superficial manner; no doubt it mightseem pleasanter to keep to the descriptions of tale-tellers; buthow many chances of error do they not present! With theyear-books, and the petitions followed by inquiries, we areon distinctly more solid ground; we soon grow accustomed totheir language, and, under the apparently cold dust, sparksof life appear, we can then with little effort restore scenes, understandexistences, perceive the distant echo of imprecations orshouts of triumph.

It was with this thought that thepresent work was {9}undertaken a good many years ago. In it there is a little lessmention of Chaucer and a little more of the “Rolls of Parliament”than is sometimes found in the works devoted tothe same period; this does not arise from want of admirationfor the great man, far from it, but from the need of atest and of means of control, which may perhaps be deemedlegitimate, and only increase, in the end, our sentiment forhim. The present writer has desired to confine himself inthis work within strict limits; one only of the many sides ofthe common life in the fourteenth century is here studied, aside little enough known and sometimes difficult to observe,namely, the character and the quality of the chief kinds ofnomadic existence then carried on in England. And even inthat reduced compass he is very far from making claim tocompleteness; so that this work is presented to the publicmore as a sketch than a treatise.

In the remodelling of his text, which had appeared asa French book in 1884 and as articles in English some yearsearlier, the author has been assisted, he need hardly say, byhis learned translator, to whom he owes much for havingassumed the task of turning into English a work which sheherself would have been so well qualified to write. He hasbeen helped too by friends, all of whom he does not mean toname here. But though feeling that in this also his incompletenesswill be very apparent, he cannot deprive himself of thepleasure of inscribing on this page with gratitude and affectionthe names of Gaston Paris, of the Institute of France; ofE. Maunde Thompson, Principal Librarian of the BritishMuseum; of F. J. Furnivall, Director of the Chaucer and manyother Societies; lastly, he ought, perhaps, to have said firstly,of the poet and critic, Edmund Gosse, to whose kind initiativeand suggestion he owes it that his book is published under itspresent form.

J.

ALBERTGATE,
July 7th, 1889.

At the time of “les longsespoirs et les vastes pensées,” so far back that I have buta hazy recollection of him, the young author of these pageshad formed so bold a plan that he kept it to himself, whichwas to write, if a long life were granted him, a completedescription of the English people, during it is true asingle century, the fourteenth, that period, of uniqueinterest, when, after long years of probation, it becamecertain that England would be English and nothing else,when the language was formed, the first masterpieces werewritten, the chief traits of the national character becamepermanent, the principal institutions were founded, andeven a first attempt at Reformation was launched.

Old Barthélemy Saint Hilaire, theindefatigable translator of Aristotle, used to say to mewhen he was our Foreign Minister: one must select, earlyin life, a vast intellectual task, that will be like aliterary companion, a long-lived one, which you can neverlose, because it is sure to outlive you. The author ofthis study thought the ampler work would be his literarycompanion.

But his official duties thereupon became more exacting,and as they had a first claim, he had to part with his companion,whom, as will happen in life’s pilgrimage, others replacedat later stages of the journey. He desired, however, thatsome trace be left of an early comradeship: hence the presentessay, illustrated in part from his pen-and-ink sketches, alsoa token of comradeship.

The need of this new issue has supplied the occasion fora revision of the text, with numerous corrections and additions,written in a land unsuspected by the best-travelledof the ever-moving heroes of these pages, written too at a timewhen the Hundred years war of Chaucerian days has beenreplaced by a Hundred years peace, and when great deedsperformed in common are, if we and our successors prove inany way worthy of our dead, the harbingers of a friendshipnot to be broken between France, England and America.

J.

WASHINGTON, 1920.

  • CONTENTS

    • PREFACE 7
    • TABLE OFCONTENTS 11
    • LISTOFILLUSTRATIONS 13
    • INTRODUCTION 23
    • PART I —— ENGLISH ROADS
      • I. ROADS AND BRIDGES• 29
      • II. THE ORDINARY TRAVELLER AND THE CASUAL PASSER-BY• 90
      • III. SECURITY OF THE ROADS• 149
    • PART II —— LAY WAYFARERS
      • INTRODUCTORY NOTE• 181
      • I. HERBALISTS, CHARLATANS, MINSTRELS, JUGGLERS, ANDTUMBLERS• 183
      • II. MESSENGERS, ITINERANT MERCHANTS AND PEDLARS• 223
      • III. OUTLAWS, WANDERING WORKMEN, AND PEASANTS OUT OFBOND• 254
    • PART III —— RELIGIOUS WAYFARERS
      • I. WANDERING PREACHERS AND FRIARS• 283
      • II. THE PARDONERS• 312
      • III. PILGRIMS AND PILGRIMAGES
        • 1. Pilgrimages, their motives: to fulfil a vow, tospite the king, to regain health• 338
        • 2. Principal English pilgrimages; the one of Europeancelebrity, St. Thomas of Canterbury• 346
        • 3. Piety, merriment, abuses. Real and false relics.Signs and brooches. Pilgrim stories. Honest and falsepilgrims• 357
        • 4. Pilgrimages beyond sea, Calais, Boulogne, Chartres,Rocamadour, St. James of Compostela, Cologne, Rome.Offerings left and indulgences gained. Helping gilds.Faith, superstition, and scepticism. Pilgrimages by proxy• 370
        • 5. The holy journey to Jerusalem. Pilgrims in the daysof St. Jerome. Pilgrims in arms, the crusades. Itinerariesand Journals. “Mandeville,” William Wey, the lord ofAnglure• 395
    • CONCLUSION • 419
    • APPENDIX• 423
      • I. Patent of King Johnentrusting a French cleric with the completion of LondonBridge, 1201• 425
      • II. Petition concerning anold bridge, with arches too low and too narrow to allowboats to pass, 1442• 426
      • III. London Bridge and itsmaintenance• 427
      • IV. Inquests as tothe maintenance of bridges, temp. Ed. I and Ed. II• 429
      • V. The King’s journeys.Petitions and statutes concerning the Royal Purveyors• 430
      • VI. The recurrence ofleet-days and visits of Justices• 431
      • VII. The dress of theworldly monk• 432
      • VIII. Noblemen’s exactionswhen travelling• 433
      • IX. Passage of the Humber ina ferry• 433
      • X. The right of sanctuary• 434
      • XI. A monopoly of minstrelsyfor the King’s own minstrels• 435
      • XII. Popular English songsof the Middle Ages• 437
      • XIII. Indulgences and thetheory of the “Treasury” according to Pope Clement VI• 438
      • XIV. Sermon accompanying thedisplay of a pretended papal bull (on the occasion of thecoming of Henry of Lancaster)• 439
      • XV. Ecclesiastical documentsconcerning chiefly English pardoners• 440
      • XVI. The first recordedcrucifix in England sculptured from life• 445
      • XVII. The pilgrimage ofReynard• 446
    • INDEX 
      1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ... 69
Comments (0)
Free online library ideabooks.net