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The Boys' and Girls' Pliny Being parts of Pliny's "Natural History" edited for boys and girls, with an Introduction

The Boys' and Girls' Pliny
Being parts of Pliny's "Natural History" edited for boys
and girls, with an Introduction
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Title: The Boys' and Girls' Pliny Being parts of Pliny's "Natural History" edited for boys and girls, with an Introduction
Release Date: 2019-01-01
Type book: Text
Copyright Status: Public domain in the USA.
Date added: 27 March 2019
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The Boys’ and Girls’ Pliny

VIEW OF NAPLES AND MT. VESUVIUS.

THE
BOYS’ AND GIRLS’
PLINY

BEING PARTS OF PLINY’S “NATURAL HISTORY”

EDITED FOR BOYS AND GIRLS, WITH AN INTRODUCTION

BY
JOHN S. WHITE, LL.D.

HEAD-MASTER BERKELEY SCHOOL

EDITOR OF “THE BOYS’ AND GIRLS’ PLUTARCH” AND “THE BOYS’ AND GIRLS’ HERODOTUS”

WITH FIFTY-TWO ILLUSTRATIONS

NEW YORK AND LONDON
G. P. PUTNAM’S SONS
The Knickerbocker Press

COPYRIGHT BY
G. P. PUTNAM’S SONS
1885

v

CONTENTS.

BOOK I.
DEDICATION.
CHAP. PAGE
Caius Plinius Secundus to his Friend Titus Vespasian 1
BOOK II.
AN ACCOUNT OF THE WORLD AND THE ELEMENTS.
I. The Character and Form of the World 9
II. Of God 12
III. The Dimensions of the World 15
IV. Of the Stars which appear suddenly, or of Comets 16
V. The Doctrine of Hipparchus about the Stars 17
VI. Of the Stars which are Named Castor and Pollux 18
VII. Of Thunder and Lightning 19
VIII. Nature of the Earth 20
IX. Italy 25
X. The Hyperboreans 27
XI. Britannia 29
XII. Mount Atlas 30
XIII. The Island of Taprobana 31
BOOK III.
MAN, HIS BIRTH AND HIS ORGANIZATION.
I. Man 37
II. The Wonderful Forms of Different Nations 40
III. Instances of Extraordinary Strength 49
IV. Instances of Remarkable Agility and Acuteness of Sight 50
V. Vigor of Mind, and Courage 51
VI. Men of Remarkable Genius and Wisdom 57
BOOK IV.
THE NATURE OF TERRESTRIAL ANIMALS.
I. Elephants; their Capacity 60
II. The Combats of Elephants 66
III. The Way in which Elephants are Caught 68
IV. The Age of the Elephant, and Other Particulars 69
V. The Lion 71
VI. Wonderful Feats Performed by Lions 74
VII. Panthers and Tigers 78
VIII. The Camel 80
IX. The Rhinoceros and the Crocotta 82
X. The Animals of Æthiopia; Wild Beasts which Kill with their Eyes 84
XI. Wolves; Serpents 85
XII. The Crocodile and the Hippopotamus 88
XIII. Prognostics of Danger Derived from Animals 92
XIV. The Hyæna 93
XV. Deer 94
XVI. The Chameleon 97
XVII. Bears and their Cubs 98
XVIII. Hedgehogs 100
XIX. The Wild Boar 101
XX. Apes 102
BOOK V.
DOMESTIC ANIMALS.
I. The Dog; Examples of its Attachment to its Master 104
II. The Horse 107
III. The Ox 112
IV. The Egyptian Apis 114
V. Sheep and their Wool 115
VI. Different Kinds of Cloths 118
VII. Goats 120
BOOK VI.
THE NATURAL HISTORY OF FISHES.
I. Why the Largest Animals are Found in the Sea 121
II. The Forms of the Tritons and Nereids 124
III. The Balæna and the Orca 125
IV. Dolphins 127
V. The Various Kinds of Turtles 133
VI. Distribution of Aquatic Animals into Various Species 134
VII. Fishes Valued for the Table 139
VIII. Peculiar Fishes 142
IX. Bloodless Fishes 144
X. Various Kinds of Shell-Fish 151
XI. Pearls 153
XII. The Nature of the Murex and the Purple 160
XIII. Bodies which have a Third Nature, that of the Animal and Vegetable Combined 164
XIV. The Shark 165
XV. Oyster-Beds, and Fish-Preserves 167
XVI. Land-Fishes 169
XVII. How the Fish Called the Anthias is Taken 170
XVIII. The Echeneis and the Torpedo 172
XIX. The Instincts and Peculiarities of Fishes 174
XX. Coral 176
XXI. The Various Kinds of Oysters 177
BOOK VII.
THE NATURAL HISTORY OF BIRDS.
I. The Ostrich 180
II. The Phœnix 181
III. The Eagle 182
IV. The Vulture and the Hawk 187
V. The Crow, the Raven, and the Owl 191
VI. The Woodpecker of Mars 193
VII. The Peacock and the Rooster 194
VIII. The Goose 197
IX. Cranes 198
X. Storks and Swans 199
XI. Foreign Birds which Visit Us 201
XII. Swallows 203
XIII. Birds which take their Departure from Us in Winter 204
XIV. The Nightingale 206
XV. The Halcyons: the Halcyon Days that are Favorable to Navigation 208
XVI. The Instinctive Cleverness Displayed by Birds in the Construction of their Nests 209
XVII. The Acanthyllis and the Partridge 210
XVIII. Pigeons 213
XIX. Different Modes of Flight and Progression in Birds 215
XX. Strange and Fabulous Birds 216
XXI. The Art of Cramming Poultry.—Aviaries 224
XXII. Peculiarities of Animals 226
BOOK VIII.
THE VARIOUS KINDS OF INSECTS.
I. The Extreme Smallness of Insects 232
II. Whether Insects Breathe, and Whether they have Blood 234
III. Bees 236
IV. The Mode in which Bees Work 238
V. The Mode of Government of the Bees 242
VI. Wasps and Hornets 244
VII. The Silk-Worm 245
VIII. Spiders 246
IX. Locusts 248
X. Ants 250
BOOK IX.
THE NATURAL HISTORY OF METALS.
I. Gold 252
II. The Origin of Gold Rings 254
III. Coins of Gold 256
IV. Silver 260
V. Mirrors 261
VI. Instances of Immense Wealth 263
VII. Instances of Luxury in Silver Plate 265
VIII. Bronze 268
IX. Statues of Bronze 271
X. The most Celebrated Colossal Statues in the City 277
XI. Of the most Celebrated Works in Bronze, and of the Artists who Executed them 280
XII. Iron 287
XIII. An Account of Paintings and Colors 289
XIV. The Earliest Painters 292
XV. Artists who Painted with the Pencil 296
XVI. Various other Kinds of Painting 311
XVII. The Inventors of the Art of Modelling 313
XVIII. Works in Pottery 315
XIX. Sculpture 318
XX. Obelisks 323
CONCLUSION.—Italy 326
xi

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE
View of Naples and Mt. Vesuvius Frontispiece.
The Indian Elephant 43
African Elephant.—Loxodonta Africana 66
Gambian Lion.—Leo Gambianus 72
Wild Cat.—Felis Catus 75
Margay.—Leopardus Tigrinus 77
Jaguar.—Leopardus Onca 78
Tiger.—Tigris Regális 79
Camel.—Camélus Arábicus 80
Giraffe.—Giraffa Camelopárdalis 81
Indian Rhinoceros.—Rhinóceros Unicornis 82
Keittoa, or Sloan’s Rhinoceros.—Rhinoceros Keittoa 83
Viper, or Adder.—Pelias Berus 87
Hippopotamus, or Zeekoe.—Hippopotamus Amphibius 91
Common Mouse.—Mus Músculus (White, Brown and Pied Varieties) 92
Caribou.—Larandus Rangifer 95
Syrian Bear, or Dubb.—Ursus Isabellinus 99
Hedgehog.—Erinaceus Europæus 100
Wild Boar.—Sus Scrofa 101
Silvery Gibbon.—Hylóbates Leuciscus 102
The Orang-Outan.—Simia Sátyrus 103
Maltese Dog.—Canis Familiáris 105
Thibet Dog.—Canis Familiáris 106
Mustang 109
Zebra.—Ásinus Zebra 110
Ass.—Ásinus Vulgaris 111
Merino, or Spanish Sheep 116
Musk Ox.—Ovibos Moschátus 119
Sea-Elephant.—Morunga proboscidea 122
Rorqual.—Physalus Böops 126
Spermaceti Whale.—Cátodon Macrocéphalus 126
Dolphin.—Delphinus Delphis 130
Group of Seals 135
Long-Spined Chætodon.—Heinochus Monoceros 141
Filamentous Gunard.—Pelor filamentosum 143
Otter.—Lutra Vulgaris 171
Bald, or White-Headed Eagle.—Haliaëtus Leucocephalus 183
Martial Eagle.—Spizáëtus bellicosus 186
Group of Falcons 189
Stork.—Ciconia Alba 200
Spotted King Fisher.—Céryle Guttáta 217
Rhinoceros Hornbill.—Búceros Rhinoceros 218
King Penguin.—Aptenodytes Pennantii 222
Gigantic Salamander.—Sieboldia Maxima 226
Hemigale.—Hemigale Hardwickii 227
Group of Rodent Animals 229
The Cat.—Felis Domestica 230
Merian’s Opossum.—Philander Dorsigerus 251
Panda, or Wah.—Aiúlrus Fulgens 276
Colossus at Rhodes 279
xiii

INTRODUCTION.

In the little village of Como, in that province of NorthernItaly called by the Romans “Gaul-this-side-the-Alps,” wasborn, twenty-three years after the coming of our Lord, CaiusPlinius Secundus, known to us by the shorter name of“Pliny.” His boyhood was spent in his native province, butwe find him in Rome in his sixteenth year attending the lecturesof Apion, the grammarian. Like Herodotus he becamea great traveller for those days, visiting Africa, Egypt andGreece, and in his twenty-third year he served in Germanyunder Pomponius Secundus, by whom he was greatly beloved,and was soon promoted to the command of a troop of cavalry.He appears to have remained in the army, journeyingabout extensively in Germany and Gaul, until he was twenty-eightyears old, when he returned to Rome and devoted himselfto the study of law. But his natural taste for literarywork speedily developed itself, and, abandoning his forensicpursuits, he set to work upon a life of his friend Pomponiusand an account of “The Wars in Germany,” which filledtwenty books when completed, no part of which is now extant.In the reign of Nero, Pliny was appointed procurator,or comptroller of the revenue, in Nearer Spain. During hisabsence upon this mission his brother-in-law, Caius Cæcilius,died, leaving one son, a boy ten years of age, Caius PliniusCæcilius Secundus—afterwards a famous lawyer and theauthor of the “Letters”—whom he adopted immediatelyupon his return from Spain, A.D. 70. To this nephew we areindebted for nearly all we know of Pliny’s personal characterand mode of life, a very entertaining description of which hegives in a letter to his friend, Baebius Macer:

xiv

“It gives me great pleasure to find you such a reader ofmy uncle’s works as to wish to have a complete collection ofthem, and to ask me for the names of them all. I will actas index then, and you shall know the very order in whichthey were written, for the studious reader likes to know this.The first work of his was a treatise in one volume, ‘On theUse of the Dart by Cavalry;’ this he wrote when in commandof one of the cavalry corps of our allied troops. It isdrawn up with great care and ingenuity. Next came ‘TheLife of Pomponius Secundus,’ in two volumes. Pomponiushad a great affection for him, and my uncle thought he owedthis tribute to his memory. ‘The History of the Wars inGermany’ was in twenty books, in which he gave an accountof all the battles we were engaged in against that nation. Adream he had while serving in the army in Germany firstsuggested the design of this work to him. He imagined thatDrusus Nero, who extended his conquests very far into thatcountry, and there lost his life, appeared to him in his sleep,and entreated him to rescue his memory from oblivion. Nextcomes a work entitled ‘The Student,’ in three parts, whichfrom their length spread into six volumes: a work in whichis discussed the earliest training and subsequent education ofthe orator. His ‘Questions of Latin Grammar and Style,’ ineight books, was written in the latter part of Nero’s reign,when the tyranny of the times made it dangerous to engagein literary pursuits requiring freedom and elevation of tone.He completed the history which Aufidius Bassus left unfinished,and added to it thirty books. And lastly he has leftthirty-seven books on Natural History, a work of great compassand learning, and as full of variety as nature herself.You will wonder how a man as busy as he was could findtime to compose so many books, and some of them, too, involvingsuch care and labor. But you will be still more surprisedwhen you hear that he pleaded at the bar for sometime, that he died in his fifty-sixth year, and that the interveningxvtime was employed partly in the execution of thehighest official duties, and

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