Milch Cows and Dairy Farming Comprising the Breeds, Breeding, and Management, in Health and Disease, of Dairy and Other Stock, The Selection Of Milch Cows, With A Full Explanation Of Guenon's Method; The Culture Of Forage Plants
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THE BREEDS, BREEDING, AND MANAGEMENT, IN HEALTH AND DISEASE,
OF DAIRY AND OTHER STOCK, THE SELECTION OF MILCH COWS,
WITH A FULL EXPLANATION OF GUENON’S METHOD;
THE CULTURE OF FORAGE PLANTS,
AND THE PRODUCTION OF
MILK, BUTTER, AND CHEESE:
EMBODYING THE MOST RECENT IMPROVEMENTS, AND ADAPTED TO
FARMING IN THE UNITED STATES AND BRITISH PROVINCES.
WITH A TREATISE UPON THE
DAIRY HUSBANDRY OF HOLLAND;
TO WHICH IS ADDED
HORSFALL’S SYSTEM OF DAIRY MANAGEMENT.
By CHARLES L. FLINT,
SECRETARY OF THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE;
AUTHOR OF “A TREATISEON GRASSES AND FORAGE PLANTS,” ETC.
PHILLIPS, SAMPSON AND COMPANY,
13 WINTER STREET.
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1858, by
CHARLES L. FLINT,
In the Clerk’s Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.
HOBART A ROBBINS,
New England Type and Stereotype Foundery,
PRINTED BY R. M. EDWARDS.
THE MASS. STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE,
MASS. SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION OF AGRICULTURE,
AND THE VARIOUS
AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES OF THE UNITED STATES,
WHOSE EFFORTS HAVE CONTRIBUTED SO LARGELY TO IMPROVE THE
DAIRY STOCK OF OUR COUNTRY
DESIGNED TO ADVANCE THAT HIGHLY IMPORTANT INTEREST,
IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED,
|CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTORY.—THE VARIOUS RACES OF PURE-BRED CATTLE IN THE UNITED STATES.||9|
|The Ayrshires—The Jersey—The Short-horns—The Dutch—Herefords—The NorthDevons|
|CHAPTER II. AMERICAN GRADE OF NATIVE CATTLE.—THE PRINCIPLES OF BREEDING.||49|
|CHAPTER III. THE SELECTION OF MILCH COWS.||79|
|CHAPTER IV. FEEDING AND MANAGEMENT OF DAIRY COWS.||113|
|CHAPTER V. THE RAISING OF CALVES.||155|
|CHAPTER VI. CULTURE OF GRASSES AND OTHER PLANTS RECOMMENDED FOR FODDER.||169|
|Timothy grass—June grass—Meadow Foxtail—Orchard grass, or RoughCocksfoot—Rough-stalked Meadow grass—Fowl Meadow grass—Rye grass—Italian Rye grass—Redtop—EnglishBent—Meadow Fescue—Tall Oat grass—Sweet-scented Vernal grass—Hungarian grass, or Millet—RedClover—White Clover—Indian Corn—Common Millet (Panicum miliaceum)—Rye—Oats—ChineseSugar-Cane—The Potato (Solanum tuberosum)—The Carrot (Daucus carota)—Turnip (Brassica rapa)—MangoldWurzel—Parsnip (Pastinaca sativa)—Kohl Rabi (Brassica oleracea, var. caulorapa)—LinseedMeal—Rape-Cake—Cotton-seed Meal—Manures|
|CHAPTER VII. MILK.||199|
|CHAPTER VIII. BUTTER AND THE BUTTER-DAIRY.||217|
|CHAPTER IX. THE CHEESE-DAIRY.||241|
|Cheshire Cheese—Stilton Cheese—Gloucester Cheese—Cheddar Cheese—DunlopCheese—Dutch Cheese—Parmesan—American Cheese|
|CHAPTER X. THE DISEASES OF DAIRY STOCK.||271|
|Garget—Puerperal or Milk Fever—Simple Fever—Typhoid Fever—Hoove orHoven—Choking—Foul in the Foot—Red Water—Hoose—Inflammation of the Glands—Inflammation of theLungs—Diarrhœa—Dysentery—Mange—Lice—Warbles—Loss of Cud—Diseases ofCalves—Diarrhœa, Purging, or Scours—Constipation or Costiveness—Hoove—Canker in the Mouth|
|CHAPTER XI. THE DAIRY HUSBANDRY OF HOLLAND.||295|
|Milking and Treatment of Milk.—Determination of the Milking Qualities of the Cows—Treatmentof Milk for Butter—Methods of Churning—Churning in the Common Churn—The Lever Churn—Churning with an ElasticRod—Churning with the Treadle Lever—Churning by Horse-power—Duration of the Churning—Working and Treatment ofButter—The Form of Fresh Butter—The Packing of Butter in Firkins and Barrels—Coloring of Butter—Use of theButter-milk—The Manufacture of the different kinds of Dutch Cheese—Cheese-making in South Holland—Manufacture ofSweet Milk Cheese in South Holland—The Use of the Whey of Sweet Milk Cheese—May Cheese—Jews’Cheese—Council’s Cheese—New Milk’s Cheese—Cheese-making in North Holland—The Utensils used inCheese-making in North Holland—Variety of North Dutch Cheeses, and the Trade in them—Making of Edam Cheese—The RedColor of Edam Cheese—Use of the Whey of the North Dutch Sweet Milk Cheese|
|CHAPTER XII. LETTER TO A DAIRY-WOMAN.||355|
|CHAPTER XIII. THE PIGGERY AS A PART OF THE DAIRY ESTABLISHMENT.||361|
|Gain or Loss of Condition ascertained by weighing Cattle Periodically—Richness of Milk andCream—Comparison of different methods of Feeding Dairy Cows—Quality of Butter|
This work is designed to embody the most recentinformation on the subject of dairy farming. My aimhas been to make a practically useful book. With thisview, I have treated of the several breeds of stock,the diseases to which they are subject, the establishedprinciples of breeding, the feeding and management ofmilch cows, the raising of calves intended for the dairy,and the culture of grasses and plants to be used as fodder.
For the chapter on the diseases of stock, I am largelyindebted to Dr. C. M. Wood, Professor of the Theoryand Practice of Veterinary Medicine, and to Dr. Geo.H. Dadd, Professor of Anatomy and Physiology, bothof the Boston Veterinary Institute. If this chaptercontributes anything to promote a more humane andjudicious treatment of cattle when suffering from disease,I shall feel amply repaid for the labor bestowedupon the whole work.
The chapter on the Dutch dairy, which I have translatedfrom the German, will be found to be of greatpractical value, as suggesting much that is applicableto our American dairies. This chapter has never before,to my knowledge, appeared in English.
The full and complete explanation of Guénon’s methodof judging and selecting milch cows,—a method originallyregarded as theoretical, but now generally admittedto be very useful in practice,—I have translated fromthe last edition of the treatise of M. Magne, a verysensible French writer, who has done good service tothe agricultural public by the clearness and simplicitywith which he has freed that system from its complicateddetails.
The work will be found to contain an account of themost enlightened practice in this country, in the statementsthose actually engaged in dairy farming; thedetails of the dairy husbandry of Holland, where thisbranch of industry is made a specialty to greater extent,and is consequently carried to a higher degree of perfection,than in any other part of the world; and themost recent and productive modes of management inEnglish dairy farming, embracing a large amount ofpractical and scientific information, not hitherto presentedto the American public in an available form.
Nothing need be said of the usefulness of a treatiseon the dairy. The number of milch cows in the country,forming so large a part of our material wealth, andserving as a basis for the future increase and improvementof every class of neat stock, on which the prosperityof our agriculture mainly depends; the intrinsicvalue of milk as an article of internal commerce, and asa most healthy and nutritious food; the vast quantityof it made into butter and cheese, and used in everyfamily; the endless details of the management, feeding,and treatment, of dairy stock, and the care and attentionrequisite to obtain from this branch of farming thehighest profit, all concur to make the want of such atreatise, adapted to our climate and circumstances, feltnot only by practical farmers, but by a large class ofconsumers, who can appreciate every improvementwhich may be made in preparing the products of thedairy for their use.
The writer has had some years of practical experiencein the care of a cheese and butter dairy, to whichhas been added a wide range of observation in some ofthe best dairy districts of the country; and it is hopedthat the work now submitted to the public will meetthat degree of favor usually accorded to an earnesteffort to do something to advance the cause of agriculture.
INTRODUCTORY.—THE VARIOUS RACES OF PURE-BREDCATTLE IN THE UNITED STATES.
The milking qualities of our domestic cows are, tosome extent, artificial, the result of care and breeding.In the natural or wild state, the cow yields onlyenough to nourish her offspring for a few weeks, andthen goes dry for several months, or during the greaterpart of the year. There is, therefore, a constant tendencyto revert to that condition, which is preventedonly by judicious treatment, designed to develop andincrease the milking qualities so valuable to the humanrace. If this judicious treatment is continued throughseveral generations of the same family or race of animals,the qualities which it is calculated to developbecome more or less fixed, and capable of transmission.Instead of being exceptional, or peculiar to an individual,they become the permanent characteristics ofa breed. Hence the origin of a great variety ofbreeds or races, the characteristics of each being dueto local circumstances such as climate, soil, and thespecial objects of the breeder, which may be the productionof milk, butter and cheese, or the raising ofbeef or working cattle.
A knowledge of the history of different breeds, andespecially of the dairy breeds, is of manifest importance.Though very excellent milkers will sometimesbe found in all of them, and of a great variety of forms,the most desirable dairy qualities will generally befound to have become fixed and permanent characteristicsof some to a greater extent than of others; butit does not follow that a race whose milking qualitieshave not been developed is of less value for other purposes,and for qualities which have been brought outwith greater care. A brief sketch of the principalbreeds of American cattle, as well as of the grades orthe common stock of the country, will aid the farmer,perhaps, in making an intelligent selection with referenceto the special object of pursuit, whether it be thedairy, the production of beef, or the raising of cattle forwork.
In a subsequent chapter on the selections of milchcows, the standard of perfection will be discussed indetail, and the characteristics of each of the races willnaturally be measured by that. In this connection, andas preliminary to the following sketches, it may bestated that, whatever breed may be selected, a full supplyof food and proper shelter are absolutely essentialto the maintenance of any milking stock, the food ofwhich goes to supply not only the ordinary waste ofthe system common to all animals, but also the milksecretions, which are greater in some than in others.A large animal on a poor pasture has to travel muchfurther to fill itself than a small one. A small ormedium-sized cow would return more milk in proportionto the food consumed, under such circumstances,than a large one.
In selecting any breed, therefore, regard should behad to the circumstances of the farmer, and the objectto be pursued. The cow most profitable for the milk-dairymay be very unprofitable in the butter and cheesedairy, as well as for the production of beef; while foreither of the latter objects the cow which gave thelargest quantity of milk might prove very unprofitable.It is desirable to secure a union and harmony of all goodqualities, so far as possible; and the farmer wants a cowthat will milk well for some years, and then, when dry,fatten readily, and sell to the butcher for the highestprice. These qualities, though often supposed to beincompatible, will be found to be united in some breedsto a greater extent than in others; while some peculiaritiesof form have been found, by observation, to bebetter adapted to the production of milk and beef thanothers. This will appear in the following pages.
are justly celebrated throughoutGreat Britain and this country for their excellent dairyqualities. Though the most recent in their origin, theyare pretty distinct from the other Scotch and Englishraces. In color, the pure Ayrshires are generally redand white, spotted or mottled, not roan like many of theshort-horns, but often presenting a bright contrast ofcolors. They are sometimes, though rarely, nearly orquite all red, and sometimes black and white; but thefavorite color is red and white brightly contrasted, andby some, strawberry-color is preferred. The head issmall, fine, and clean; the face long, and narrow at themuzzle, with a sprightly yet generally mild expression;eye small, smart, and lively; the horns short, fine, andslightly twisted upwards, set wide apart at the roots;the neck thin; body enlarging from fore to hind quarters;the back straight and narrow, but broad acrossthe loin; joints rather loose and open; ribs rather flat;hind quarters rather thin; bone fine; tail long, fine