The Boot and Shoe Manufacturers' Assistant and Guide. Containing a Brief History of the Trade. History of India-rubber and Gutta-percha, and Their Application to the Manufacture of Boots and Shoes. Full Instructions in the Art, With Diagrams and Scales,
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BOOT AND SHOE MANUFACTURERS’ ASSISTANT AND GUIDE.
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE TRADE.
History of India-Rubber and Gutta-Percha,
AND THEIR APPLICATION TO THE MANUFACTURE OF BOOTS AND SHOES.
FULL INSTRUCTIONS IN THE ART,
WITH DIAGRAMS AND SCALES, ETC., ETC.
VULCANIZATION AND SULPHURIZATION,
ENGLISH AND AMERICAN PATENTS.
AN ELABORATE TREATISE ON TANNING.
In preparing the following pages, the author has aimedto supply a want hitherto unsupplied. No workdevoted to the wants of the Boot and Shoe-maker, manufacturer,or merchant, has ever been compiled. Ablearticles upon the “Trade,” statistical statements, andgeneral comments upon matters of interest local in theircharacter, and having particular reference to the stateof the times in which they were written, have been published,perused and forgotten. But no work, containinga history of this important mechanical interest, togetherwith instructions in the science of the Boot and Shoemanufacture, has ever been written. The Author doesnot flatter himself that he has, by any means, exhaustedso fruitful a subject, but that he has prepared and compiledimportant facts and rules, and submitted valuablesuggestions which are correct in theory, and practicalin their application, he has not a doubt.
Within a few years, this important industrial interesthas assumed almost wonderful proportions, and it nowtowers in magnitude and importance, above all its compeers.New elements have been introduced into themanufacture of boots and shoes, and fortunes have beenexpended in endeavoring to introduce new methods byivwhich to cheapen the process of manufacture, as well asthe raw material. The introduction of India-rubber andGutta-percha as articles of mechanical use, has quickenedthe pulses of invention, and has already producedwonderful, and important changes in all departments ofthe mechanic arts, and more especially in that of bootsand shoes. Already have these important vegetablegums, and the thousand uses of which they are susceptible,attracted the attention of the world, and last butnot least, we are indebted to the discovery and use ofGutta-percha for the successful insulation of the AtlanticCable, without which substance, the cable could nothave been safely submerged. Establishments for themanufacture of India-rubber, and Gutta-percha, into almostevery conceivable shape, have sprung up, as itwere in a day. Patents for its use and application,are constantly presenting themselves. Heretofore, ithas been the policy of all interested in the manufactureof India-rubber and Gutta-percha, to surround their inventionswith an air of mystery. “No admittance”has been blazoned upon their laboratories, and no“open sesame” pronounced by the uninitiated, has succeededin opening the doors to their carefully guardedtreasures.
In this work, we have endeavored to make clear, simple,but important facts, scientific discoveries and observations,which, from practical experience, we know tobe of great utility. A collection of the most approvedrecipes for the preparation of compounds of India-rubber,and Gutta-percha, would alone, make a volumeworthy of preservation. But we have endeavored topresent all the important rules, practical hints, andobservations, necessary to the manufacture of boots andshoes, also an important and economical method of repairingthe same.
vHerein may be found a history of the discovery ofIndia-rubber and Gutta-percha, its uses and applications,the inventions which they have called into existence,the patents that have been taken out, the “claims” setforth by different individuals, the causes of the failuresof many of them, and a brief history of their pretensions.We herein introduce a process of manufacturing bootsand shoes, of the most durable character, at about one-halfthe expense of the old method, by a process so simplethat the humblest cordwainer in the land, no less thanthe wealthy and extensive manufacturer, can at onceenter upon the field of competition; but time and experimentwill determine the real value and utility ofGutta-percha as a substitute for “pegs” and “stitches,”in the manufacture of boots and shoes.
Particular attention has been given to the applicationof Gutta-percha, and India-rubber, in the manufacture ofboots and shoes, inasmuch as it is a new field, and muchinterest is manifested by the “craft” to understand itsvalue and use.
Not least in the application of this process of shoemanufacture, is the invaluable benefit to be derived byall who wear thin soled shoes or boots, inasmuch as shoesthus made are impervious to water from the sole, thusallowing the most delicate lady to walk with impunityupon ground, wet by the morning shower, or eveningdew. Perspiration of the foot is in no wise confined bythis process, as it escapes from the upper portion of theshoe.
The system of cutting Patterns, herein set forth, is aloneworth the price of the work, as its simplicity, scientificcorrectness, and application to every description of bootor shoe, enables any mechanic possessing ordinary ingenuity,to prepare sets of patterns for all classes of workdesired. Diagrams, to assist the beginner are explainedviso clearly, that every important rule is at once understood.
A “Treatise upon Tanning” is also introduced, inwhich the subject is treated in a comprehensive manner,and compilations from the most approved authoritiesare made.
The history of Vulcanization, Adulterations of India-rubber,(caoutchouc) and gutta-percha, will be found tocontain many important facts and suggestions.
The author is indebted to various sources for many ofthe scientific and historical facts herein contained. First,to a Boston gentleman of high standing, long identifiedwith the Boot and Shoe interest, for facts in the earlyhistory of the trade in New England.
A great number of English works have been carefullyexamined, and such of their contents as bear directlyupon the elucidation of facts, and theories set forth,copied. The Scientific American, has also furnished uswith many important facts and suggestions.
All the practical and useful compounds herein described,with a few exceptions, are the results of long,patient, and laborious investigation; also the process ofmaking boots and shoes by the new method, are fromactual tests, and personal experiments. This portion ofthe work, or rather the facts therein set forth, were furnishedby a gentleman who has devoted many years tothe prosecution of experiments in gutta-percha, andIndia-rubber compounds. He is acknowledged to possessgreat practical knowledge, and scientific researchin this department of mechanical art.
A general, rather than a scientific compilation hasbeen adopted, so that the work shall be found universalin its application, although addressed especially to themechanic. All technicalities have been avoided as farviias possible, and simple descriptions, and popular termssubstituted.
The “Assistant and Guide,” is dedicated to all interestedin the great industrial interest which it represents.It is a humble pioneer in a new field, and is submittedwith the hope that it may be found a valuable “assistant”to those just starting in the first years of their apprenticeship—a“guide” to such as are desirous of perfectingthemselves in the calling to which their effortsare directed, and a “companion” to the merchant, andall who seek for information, in the thousand variedchannels through which it flows.
|Introduction—An account of the various styles of “covering for feet,” before the Christian Era; with illustrations,||xv|
|Importance of the Boot and Shoe Trade,||9|
|Rise and Progress of the Boot and Shoe Trade,||14|
|Gutta Percha—its Properties, Manufactures, &c., &c.,||19|
|Gutta Percha—its First Application as a Cement in the United States,||39|
|Gutta Percha for Belts, Harnesses, &c.; its Application to Wood Work, &c.,||43|
|India Rubber—its Discovery, Uses, &c.,||51|
|Cleaning Processes, Mackintosh Cloth,||56|
|Cutting Processes, India Rubber Liquid, Braids and Webs,||58–60|
|Vulcanized; Comparison of India Rubber and Gutta Percha,||61–65|
|Preparation of Stock,||66|
|Middle Soles; Spur or Spring Lifts; To Prepare Leather Soles; To Prepare Counters; Preparation of Stock for Cloth Shoes; Preparation of the Upper Stock; To Prepare Uppers made of any description of Leather, or part Leather and Cloth; Instructions for Lasting; Cementing Processes after Lasting; Directions for applying Thick or Thin Soles to Shoes and Boots; Remarks on Finishing; Taps or Soles for Repairing; Preparing the Boot or Shoe to be Repaired; Important Facts for Manufacturers; Compounds for Heels of Shoes or Boots; Various Fibrous Compounds for Leather Soles, &c.; Practical Hints.|
|Hints and Instructions on Pattern Cutting,||79|
|Diagrams on pages 82, 83, 84, 85, 87, 96, 97, 99; Fitting up Lasts for the Measurement of the Foot, 88; Cutting Boot Patterns, 89; Scales for Lasts, 91; Scales for Medium Proportions of Feet, 93; Directions for Pattern Cutting, 93–101.|
|Instructions for Making French Custom Boots, Shoes and Gaiters,||103|
|Discovery of the Vulcanization and Sulphurization of India|