Board-Work; or the Art of Wig-making, Etc. Designed For the Use of Hairdressers and Especially of Young Men in the Trade. to Which Is Added Remarks Upon Razors, Razor-sharpening, Razor Strops, & Miscellaneous Recipes, Specially Selected.
The cover image was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain.
THE ART OF WIG-MAKING,
DESIGNED FOR THE USE OF HAIRDRESSERS AND ESPECIALLY OF YOUNG MEN IN THE TRADE.
TO WHICH IS ADDED
REMARKS UPON RAZORS, RAZOR-SHARPENING, RAZOR STROPS, & MISCELLANEOUS RECIPES,
The following work, which is the result of muchanxious study and labour, is designed to meet along-felt want. It is intended chiefly for the useof apprentices, improvers, and others in the tradewhose knowledge of board-work is deficient. TheAuthor trusts that the efforts he has thus made todisseminate sound and useful information will beappreciated by those for whom the book is intended.The greater portion of the matter hasbeen already published in The Hairdressers’ Chronicle,but for the purposes of this work it hasbeen carefully collated, revised, and additionsmade, so that the subject might be presented tothe trade in a complete form. Nothing of importanceto learners has been omitted, and theAuthor has dwelt, with repeated emphasis, uponitems which might be considered by some, asminor details; but every skilled workman knowshow necessary it is for pupils to be well groundedin the rudiments of their art.
It may be taken for granted that he whohabitually pays attention to small matters inconnection with his business, will be the onemost depended upon by his employer. But theadvantage to be derived from such a course ofaction does not end here, for should he embarkin trade, the careful and painstaking man ismore likely to meet with a lasting success.“Anything worth doing, is worth doing well,”cannot be too deeply impressed upon the mind,ivand those who studiously regard the maxim willtake a pride in all they undertake. Undue hastein production must needs make careless workmen,and, perhaps, excessively keen competitionlies at the bottom of all. The Author has reasonto know that a fair percentage of the public doesnot object to giving a reasonable price for agood article, and it is worth while to cultivatesuch a class of customers. The tradesman, however,must first acquire ability in his specialwalk in life; no effort should be spared tosecure the confidence of his patrons by uprightdealing: thus it is that reputations are madeand sustained. The public experiences no difficultyin procuring cheap articles; those whichare good in quality and reasonable in price maynot be so easily obtainable. All through thiswork, the Author has strenuously urged the readerto produce superior work as a tradesman, and topractise fair dealing as a man, and if theseprinciples be acted upon, the student, for whosebenefit this treatise is designed, cannot fail toprofit by this endeavour to serve him.
When the present phases of business, and thekeenness of competition are borne in mind, theimportance of every person acquiring knowledgein his craft will at once be appreciated. In nosense more forcibly than this does the truth ofthe adage apply, that “Knowledge is power.”
|Introduction—A Scientific Description of Hair—Chinese and Japanese Hair—Chiffonier Hair—Waste Hair—Turned Hair—Combings—Best Quality Hair—The Hair Market in Brittany—Dr. Lindemann’s Gregarine—The “Chignon Fungus”—Cuttings||1|
|The Implements Used in Preparing Hair—The Preparation of Hair Described—Washing the Hair—Drying the Hair—Drawing the Hair—Nitting the Hair—Carding the Hair—Curling the Hair—Boiling and Baking the Hair||18|
|The Preparation of Hair (continued)—Crop Hair—A Remarkable Trial—Craping and Crimping the Hair—Inserted Stems—Boiling and Baking Crêped Hair—Combings and Turned Hair alluded to again||29|
|viDyeing the Hair—Of Hair-dyes generally—Powder Dyes—Liquid Dyes—Iron Dyes—Lead Dyes—Various opinions concerning the use of Lead Dyes—Silver Dyes—Dyeing False and Faded Hair—Bleaching and Blanching Hair||42|
|The First Lesson in Wig-making, Weaving the Hair—“Once In,” Close or Ringlet Weft—“Twice In,” or Front Weft—“Thrice In,” Crop, or Wig Weft—“Fly” Weft, for Top Rows—Making Ringlet Bunches—Tufts—Curls on Combs—Alexandra Curls||57|
|Making Twists, “Tails,” or Switches—Back and Side Plaits—Chignon Universel—The Zephyr Coiffure—Semi-waved Curled Chignon—A Novel Chignon—Of Chignons in general||73|
|Scalpettes and Fringes; general remarks thereon—Curled and Waved Fringes—“Water Waves”—Mounting and Making Scalpettes||97|
|The Changeability of Fashion—Bandeaux, Fronts, and Fillets—Plain Bandeaux—Waved Bandeaux, with Fringe—To Wave the Hair of Bandeaux—French (woven) Fronts—French (woven) Fronts with Parting—Diamond-shaped and Wing Fronts—Temple-mounted Fronts—Fillets or Cauls||115|
|viiGeneral Observations on the Manufacture of Partings and Crowns—Non-transparent Partings; Silk and Skin—Transparent Partings; Net, Gauze, Yak, and Human Hair Foundations—“The Genealogy of Implantation”—Knotting, and some remarks thereon—Single Knotting—Double Knotting||143|
|Of Wigs in General, and some Historical remarks thereon—On Taking an Order for a Wig or Scalp—Means adopted for securing them to the Head—Directions for Measurement—On Mounting and Making a Scalp—“Pen-knife” and Metallic Springs—A Scalp described with Parting and Crown—Scalps with Gauze, Net, and Human Hair Foundations||157|
|Of Gentlemen’s Wigs, and a few additional observations thereon—To make a strong and durable Wig with woven Hair throughout—Mounting a Wig—The Metallic Spring again—Various kinds of Net used—Caution against using too much Hair—Sewing on the Weft—The Crown made with Weft—The Parting formed with Weft—Pressing the Work—Of Elastic Springs—The Wig completed||181|
|Of Gentlemen’s Wigs (continued)—Difference between Woven and Knotted Wigs considered—Instructions for Making a Knotted Wig—Of the Parting and Crown—Of the Crown only—Pressing, Dressing, etc.—A Superior kind of Wig Described, and Making the same—The Transparent Parting and Crown—Sundry Important Details||195|
|viiiOf Ladies’ Wigs, and important remarks thereon—Of Mounting and Making Ladies’ Wigs—A well-balanced Wig essential—A Wig with Parting and Straight Hair throughout—All Weft to be concealed—Alterations—Of Wigs with Transparent Partings—Mounting and Making the same—Shape of Head to be noted, together with any Elevations or Depressions—The Wig-block should be a correct Model of the Head||209|
|The Use of Leather Rollers in Curling Hair—Papering and Pinching Hair with the same object in view—Plaiting Hair (for Coiffures)—Of Razors, Razor Setting, and Razor Strops—Miscellaneous Recipes||220|
The four pages of illustrations are supplied for thepurpose of giving the learner some designs to work from,and, as fashions repeatedly change, the ability to makeup sundry pieces of work is necessary and unquestionablyuseful.
A brief description of the illustrations will be foundat the foot of each page.
Introduction—A Scientific Description of Hair—Chineseand Japanese Hair—Chiffonier Hair—Waste Hair—TurnedHair—Combings—Best Quality Hair—TheHair Market in Brittany—Dr. Lindemann’s Gregarine—The“Chignon Fungus”—Cuttings.
“Board-work,” in the fullest extent of itssignification, means all that which is doneby clever hairdressers and wig-makers inthe workshop and at the work-table. It comprisesthe cleaning and preparing of hair forthe articles intended to be made; weaving;sewing and knotting; the making of fronts,bands, chignons, curls and twists of variousdescriptions; scalp-making; ladies’ and gentlemen’swig-making; and numerous other mattersof detail in connection with the subject. That atreatise on this subject is required there cannot bea doubt, for while haircutters and shavers continueto increase, the clever worker at the board, to acertain extent at least, is gradually disappearing.2This may be considered a bold assertion, but itis true nevertheless. Let me give an illustrationin support of this statement, and experiencedmen, doubtless, will coincide with my opinion.
It not unfrequently happens that when a youthhas acquired a knowledge of men’s haircuttingand shaving, he thinks himself tolerably cleverand able to get his living. If he be well proportionedand possess a kindly disposition, sucha youth is sure to obtain the favourable considerationof customers, and come to believe,perhaps, that he is on the road to competency,if not to fortune. By the time he arrives at nineteenor twenty years of age he most likely desiresa change, and seeks another place, and as hedoubtless will get “a rise,” some encouragementis given to his views by indiscreet acquaintances.Numerous advertisements constantlyappear for “a good haircutter and shaver, witha knowledge of board-work,” and the youngman forthwith applies for the situation, andobtains it—the “knowledge of board-work” requiredbeing, not unfrequently, of a trivial andelementary character. And thus he goes on tillopportunity offers for further advancement, orgoing into business, when he discovers the wantof “technical instruction.” Unfortunately, apprenticeshipis thought to be “old-fashioned,” anda lad now-a-days thinks he can acquire as muchtrade knowledge in four years as his master didin seven. But such an idea is, unmistakably, “a3delusion and a snare,” and thus it comes to passthat many men seek to acquire at thirty what theyshould have learnt ten or a dozen years before. Theforegoing remarks would apply equally as well toother trades, and thoughtful men regard this aspectof affairs with some degree of anxiety and apprehension,hence the desire for “technical instruction,”promoted as it is by some of the City Guilds.
I have reason to know that the book entitled“Lessons in Hairdressing” is highly appreciatedby many, both employers and employed, and Itrust that “Board-work,” which I shall endeavourto make as complete as possible, will be equallyas acceptable to the trade. The letterpress descriptionswill be given in a comprehensive manner,and where the intricacies are somewhat complicatedor obscure, well-drawn illustrations will accompanythe text. To those who wish to takeadvantage of my labours, I will briefly say