The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft, Volume 7 History of Central America, Volume 2, 1530-1800
Inconsistent hyphenation and spelling in the original document havebeen preserved. Obvious typographical errors have been corrected.
In many cases, Bancroft uses both "u" and "v" to spell an author's name. Examples include:
- Villagutierre and Villagvtierre
- Mondo Nuovo and Mondo Nvovo
- Villagutierre and Villagvtierre
- Aluarado and Alvarado
- Gvat. and Guat.
- Cogolludo and Cogollvdo
- Vetancurt and Vetancvrt.
Other archaic letter substitutions include "b" for "v" and "i" for "y" and vice versa. These have been left as printed.
Possible printers errors include:
- Esquemelin and Exquemelin are both used, possibly for the same person.
- Castile and Castille are both used, possibly for the same place.
- Fray Zambano and Zambrano are both used, possibly for the same person.
- On page 16, Mama Ocollo should possibly be Mama Ocllo or Occlo.
- On page 237, "In 1519 he ordered the council of the Indies to draw" (date possibly incorrect).
- On page 424, mines of Chuluteca should possibly be mines of Choluteca.
- In footnote I-17, "vamrasen en tieren" is a possible printer's error.
- There is possibly text missing from the quote in footnote I-31.
- In footnote X-45, Ariat should possibly be Arias.
- In footnote X-45, Malapalte should possibly be Malaparte.
- In footnote XI-11, "Ia Gottierez" is a possible printer's error.
- In footnote XI-11, "ten zy binnen vier dagen" is a possible printer's error.
- The references in footnote XVII-12 and footnote XVII-20 to Volume ii. of this series should possibly refer to Volume i.
- In footnote XVII-35, "mirá que todo lo bueno que bacare" is a possible printer's error.
- The reference to "this volume" in footnote XVIII-31, is ambiguous. A map of Guatemala can be found here.
- In footnote XXVI-24, "en gaossir" should possibly be "engrossir."
- In footnote XXVII-6, Casttell should possibly be Castell.
- In footnote XXVII-15, Governor Mercedo should possibly be Governor Mercado.
- The sentence "no hicesters enterar la suma que el cinsutacto, y corneríco de Lima so obligoa suplir por imaginaria, á lo epetwo del registro que salió de aquella ciudad" in footnote XXVII-22 was corrected to "no hicesteis enterar la suma que el Consulado, y comercio de Lima se obligoa suplir por ynmaxinaria, a lo efectibo del rexistro que salio de aquella ciudad."
- In footnote XXXVII-46, Moninbo should possibly be Monimbo (Nicaragua).
Italics in the footnote citations were inconsistently applied by the typesetter.
Accents and other diacritics are inconsistently used.
This volume contains references to the previous six volumes of this work.They can be found at:
- Volume 1: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/41070/41070-h/41070-h.htm
- Volume 2: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/42808/42808-h/42808-h.htm
- Volume 3: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/43123/43123-h/43123-h.htm
- Volume 4: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/44104/44104-h/44104-h.htm
- Volume 5: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/45268/45268-h/45268-h.htm
- Volume 6: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/58658/58658-h/58658-h.htm
HUBERT HOWE BANCROFT.
HISTORY OF CENTRAL AMERICA.
Vol. II. 1530-1800.
A. L. BANCROFT & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS.
Entered according to Act of Congress in the Year 1883, by
HUBERT H. BANCROFT,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
All Rights Reserved.
CONTENTS OF THIS VOLUME.
PIZARRO AND PERU.
|Origin and Character of the Conqueror—The Triumvirate Copartnershipof Pizarro, Friar Luque, and Diego de Almagro for Continuing theDiscovery of Andagoya—Departure—Attitude of Pedrarias—SlowDevelopment of their Plans—Return and Reëmbarkation—Persistenceof Pizarro—Sufferings on Gallo Island—Fate Defied—Discoveryof Tumbez and the Coast Beyond—Return to Panamá—Pizarro VisitsSpain—A New Expedition—Aboriginal History of Peru—TheRival Incas—Establishment of the Spaniards at San Miguel—Atahualpaat Caxamalca—The Spaniards Visit Him there—Seizure ofthe Inca—Pacification of Peru—Arrival of Almagro—Death ofFather Luque—Judicial Murder of the Inca—A King's Ransom—Downfallof the Peruvian Monarchy—Disputes and Violent Deathsof the Almagros and Pizarros||1|
CASTILLA DEL ORO.
|Administration of Pedro de los Rios—He is Superseded by the LicentiateAntonio de la Gama—Barrionuevo's Reign—A Province inNueva Andalucía Granted to Pedro de Heredia—He Sails for Cartagena—Conflictswith the Natives—Treasure Unearthed—TheDevil's Bohío—Prosperity of the Settlement—Alonso Heredia Sentto Rebuild San Sebastian—Is Opposed by Julian Gutierrez—Captureof Gutierrez—The Golden Temple of Dabaiba Once More—Expeditionsin Search of the Glittering Phantom, Francisco Césarand Others—Audiencia Established at Panamá—Maleadministration—Complaintsof the Colonists—Destitution in the Province—Bishopsof Castilla del Oro—Miraculous Image of the Virgin—Bibliographicalvi||44|
THIRD ATTEMPTED COLONIZATION OF VERAGUA.
|The Dukes of Veragua—María de Toledo Claims the Territory for herSon Luis Colon—Felipe Gutierrez Appointed to the Command—Landingon the Coast of Veragua—Sickness and Famine—TheCacique Dururua Enslaved—He Promises to Unearth his BuriedTreasures—Messengers Sent in Search of It—They Return Empty-handed—ButWarn the Chief's Followers—He Guides the Spaniardsto the Spot—They are Surrounded by Indians—Rescue of theCacique—Cannibalism among the Christians—Sufferings of the FewSurvivors—The Colony Abandoned||63|
THE CAKCHIQUELS AGAIN IN REVOLT.
|Alvarado Sets forth to Honduras to Join Cortés—Mutiny among hisMen—Gonzalo de Alvarado Appointed Lieutenant-governor—HisMeeting with Marin and his Party—The Second Revolt of theCakchiquels—Gonzalo the Cause of the Insurrection—Massacre ofthe Spaniards—Alvarado Returns to Guatemala—He Captures thePeñol of Xalpatlahua—He Marches on Patinamit—His Return toMexico—His Meeting with Cortés||74|
SUBJUGATION OF ZACATEPEC AND CAPTURE OF SINACAM'S STRONGHOLD.
|Puertocarrero in Charge of Affairs—Revolt at Zacatepec—Escape of theSpanish Garrison—The Place Recaptured—Execution of the HighPriest Panaguali—Sinacam's Stronghold—Its Siege and Capture—Jorgede Alvarado Appointed Governor—The City of SantiagoFounded in the Almolonga Valley—Prosperity of the new Settlement||87|
INDIAN REVOLTS AND CIVIL FACTIONS IN GUATEMALA.
|Alvarado Returns to Spain—He is Arraigned before the Council of theIndies—His Acquittal—His Marriage—He Returns to Mexico—HisTrial before the Audiencia—Francisco de Orduña Arrives atSantiago—And Takes the Residencia of Jorge de Alvarado—TheConfederated Nations in Revolt—Juan Perez Dardon's Expeditionto the Valley of Xumay—The Spaniards Attack the Stronghold ofviiUspantan—Their Repulse and Retreat—The Place Afterward Capturedby Francisco de Castellanos—The Circus of Copan Besiegedby Hernando de Chaves—Gallant Conduct of a Cavalry Soldier—Alvarado'sReturn to Santiago—Demoralized Condition of the Province||100|
ALVARADO'S EXPEDITION TO PERU.
|Ship-building in Guatemala—Alvarado Prepares an Expedition to theSpice Islands—But Turns his Attention toward Peru—Opposition ofthe Treasury Officials—The Pilot Fernandez Brings News of Atahualpa'sRansom—Strength of Alvarado's Armament—He Lands atPuerto Viejo—Failure of his Expedition—His Return to Guatemala—NativeRevolts during his Absence—The Visitador MaldonadoArrives at Santiago—He Finds No Fault in the Adelantado—But isAfterwards Ordered to Take his Residencia—Alvarado in Honduras||122|
THE ECCLESIASTICS IN GUATEMALA.
|Francisco Marroquin Arrives at Santiago—He is Appointed Bishop—Godlessnessof the Colonists—The Prelate Invites Las Casas to JoinHim—Marroquin's Consecration in Mexico—The Church at SantiagoElevated to Cathedral Rank—Difficulty in Collecting the ChurchTithes—The Merced Order in Guatemala—Miraculous Image of OurLady of Merced—Bibliographical||133|
AFFAIRS IN HONDURAS.
|Diego Mendez de Hinostrosa Appointed Lieutenant-governor—SalcedoReturns to Trujillo—His Office Usurped by Vasco de Herrera—Deathof Salcedo—Three Rival Claimants for the Governorship—Expeditionsto the Naco and Jutigalpa Valleys—Diego Mendez Conspiresagainst Herrera—Assassination of the Latter—A Reign of Terror—Arrestand Execution of the Conspirator—Arrival of Governor Albitezat Trujillo—His Death—Andrés de Cereceda at the Head of Affairs—Distressof the Spaniards—Exodus of Settlers from Trujillo—TheyEstablish a Colony in the Province of Zula—Cereceda Appeals forAid to Pedro de Alvarado—He is Roughly Used by his own Followers—AlvaradoArrives in Honduras—He Founds New Settlements—HisDeparture for Spain||144viii|
ADMINISTRATION OF AFFAIRS IN NICARAGUA.
|Malefeasance of Castañeda—Diego Álvarez Osorio the First Bishop ofNicaragua—A Convent Founded at Leon—Las Casas Arrives—Castañeda'sFlight—Arrival of Contreras—Proposed Expedition to ElDesaguadero—Opposition of Las Casas—Departure with All theDominicans—The Volcano of El Infierno de Masaya—Fray Blas Believesthe Lava to be Molten Treasure—His Descent into the BurningPit—Exploration of the Desaguadero—Doctor Robles Attemptsto Seize the New Territory—Contreras Leaves for Spain—His Arrest,Trial, and Return—His Son-in-law Meanwhile Usurps the Government—Antoniode Valdivieso Appointed Bishop—Feud between theEcclesiastics and the Governor—Alonso Lopez de Cerrato Takes theResidencia of Contreras—Missionary Labors in Nicaragua||166|
EXPEDITION OF DIEGO GUTIERREZ TO COSTA RICA.
|Diego Gutierrez Appointed Governor—Desertion of his Soldiers—He Proceedsto Nicaragua—The Advice of Contreras—The Expedition Sailsfor the Rio San Juan—Friendly Reception by the Natives—His MenDesert a Second Time—Reënforcements from Nicaragua and Nombrede Dios—The Historian Benzoni Joins the Party—Gutierrez asan Evangelist—He Inveigles Camachire and Cocori into his Camp—HeDemands Gold under Pain of Death—Noble Conduct of the CaciqueCocori—The Spaniards March into the Interior—Their Sufferingsfrom Hunger—They are Attacked and Massacred—Benzoni andFive Other Survivors Rescued by Alonso de Pisa||187|
ALVARADO'S LAST EXPEDITION.
|The Adelantado's Match-making Venture—Its Failure—Alvarado's Commissionfrom the Crown—He Lands at Puerto de Caballos—AndThence Proceeds to Iztapa—His Armament—He Sails for Mexico—HisDefeat at Nochistlan—His Penitence, Death, and Last Will—Characterof the Conqueror—Comparison of Traits with Those ofCortés—While above Pizarro He was far beneath Sandoval—His Delightin Bloodshed for its own Sake—The Resting-place and Epitaph—Alvarado'sProgeny||201ix|
THE CONQUEST OF CHIAPAS.
|Origin of the Chiapanecs—They Submit to the Spaniards after the MexicanConquest—But Rise in Arms when Required to Pay Tribute—CaptainLuis Marin Undertakes the Conquest of the Province—HisBattles with the Natives—The Panic-stricken Artillerymen—Captureof the Stronghold of Chiapas—The Chamulans Rise in Revolt—TheirFortress Besieged—Repulse of the Spaniards—Bernal Diaz in Peril—Flightand Surrender of the Chamulans—Marin Returns to EspírituSanto—Second Revolt of the Chiapanecs—Their Subjugation byDiego de Mazariegos—Third Rebellion—Their Self-destruction—PedroPuertocarrero in the Field—His Discomfiture—Founding ofVilla Real—Juan Enriquez de Guzman Takes the Residencia ofMazariegos—His Maleadministration||213|
THREATENED DESTRUCTION OF THE INDIES.
|Decrease of Indian Population at the Isthmus—And in Honduras—Treatmentof Spanish Allies in Guatemala—Torture and Butchery ofHostile Natives—Terror Inspired by Alvarado—Early Legislation—ItsNon-observance—The New Laws—The Audiencia of PanamáAbolished—The Audiencia of Los Reyes and Los Confines Established—DisgustCaused by the New Code—The First Viceroy ofPeru Arrives at the Isthmus—He Takes Charge of Treasure Acquiredby Slave Labor—And Liberates a Number of Indians||232|
PANAMÁ AND PERU.
|Administration of Doctor Robles—Interoceanic Communication—ProposedChange of the Site of Panamá—Nombre de Dios and itsTrade—The Isthmus the Highway of Commerce between the Hemispheres—VascoNuñez Vela Lands in Peru—Gonzalo Pizarro at theHead of a Rebellion—Dissolution of the Audiencia of Los Reyes andArrest of the Viceroy—His Release—His Defeat and Death at Añaquito—Gonzalo'sDreams of Conquest—He Despatches Bachicao toPanamá—Hinojosa's Expedition—His Bloodless Conquest of theProvince—Melchor Verdugo's Invasion—Pedro de la Gasca—HisNegotiations with the Revolutionists—Gasca Lands in Peru—Executionof Gonzalo Pizarro||245x|
REVOLT OF THE CONTRERAS BROTHERS.
|Cause of the Revolt—Preparations of the Conspirators—Assassination ofBishop Valdivieso—The Rebels Defeat the Men of Granada—TheirPlan of Operations—The Expedition Sails for Natá—Gasca Arrivesat the Isthmus with the King's Treasure—Capture of Panamá—Blundersof the Rebel Leaders—Hernando de Contreras Marches toCapira—He is Followed by his Lieutenant Bermejo—Gasca's Arrivalat Nombre de Dios—Uprising of the Inhabitants of Panamá—Bermejo'sAttack on the City—His Repulse—His Forces Annihilated—Fateof Hernando and his Followers||274|
AFFAIRS IN HONDURAS.
|Francisco de Montejo Appointed Governor—Revolt of the Cacique Lempira—DastardlyArtifice of the Spaniards—Establishment of NewColonies—Condition of the Settlements—Mining in Honduras—Returnof Pedro de Alvarado—Montejo Deposed from Office—Alonsode Maldonado the First President of the Audiencia of the Confines—Maltreatmentof the Natives—Rival Prelates|