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The Heavens Above A Popular Handbook of Astronomy

The Heavens Above
A Popular Handbook of Astronomy
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Title: The Heavens Above A Popular Handbook of Astronomy
Release Date: 2019-02-02
Type book: Text
Copyright Status: Public domain in the USA.
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The Project Gutenberg eBook, The Heavens Above, by J. A. (Joseph Anthony)Gillet and W. J. (William James) Rolfe

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United Statesand most other parts of the world at no cost and with almost norestrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use itunder the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with thiseBook or online at www.gutenberg.org. If you are notlocated in the United States, you'll have to check the laws of thecountry where you are located before using this ebook.

Title: The Heavens Above

A Popular Handbook of Astronomy

Author: J. A. (Joseph Anthony) Gillet and W. J. (William James) Rolfe

Release Date: February 2, 2019 [eBook #58810]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1

***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE HEAVENS ABOVE***

 

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Light Spectra

Spectra Of Various Sources Of Light.

The Heavens Above: A Popular Handbook of Astronomy

THE HEAVENS ABOVE:
A POPULAR HANDBOOK OF ASTRONOMY.
BY
J. A. GILLET,
PROFESSOR OF PHYSICS IN THE NORMAL COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK,
AND
W. J. ROLFE,
FORMERLY HEAD MASTER OF THE HIGH SCHOOL,
CAMBRIDGE, MASS.
WITH SIX LITHOGRAPHIC PLATES AND FOUR HUNDRED
AND SIXTY WOOD ENGRAVINGS.
POTTER, AINSWORTH, & CO.,
NEW YORK AND CHICAGO.
1882.
Copyright by
J. A. GILLET and W. J. ROLFE,
1882.
Franklin Press:
RAND, AVERY, AND COMPANY,
BOSTON.

PREFACE.

It has been the aim of the authors to give inthis little book a brief, simple, and accurate accountof the heavens as they are known to astronomersof the present day. It is believed that there isnothing in the book beyond the comprehension ofreaders of ordinary intelligence, and that it containsall the information on the subject of astronomy thatis needful to a person of ordinary culture. Theauthors have carefully avoided dry and abstrusemathematical calculations, yet they have sought tomake clear the methods by which astronomers havegained their knowledge of the heavens. The variouskinds of telescopes and spectroscopes have beendescribed, and their use in the study of the heavenshas been fully explained.

The cuts with which the book is illustrated havebeen drawn from all available sources; and it is believedthat they excel in number, freshness, beauty,and accuracy those to be found in any similar work.The lithographic plates are, with a single exception,reductions of the plates prepared at the Observatoryat Cambridge, Mass. The remaining lithographicplate is a reduced copy of Professor Langley'scelebrated sun-spot engraving. Many of theviews of the moon are from drawings made fromthe photographs in Carpenter and Nasmyth's workon the moon. The majority of the cuts illustratingthe solar system are copied from the French editionof Guillemin's "Heavens." Most of the remainderare from Lockyer's "Solar Physics," Young's "Sun,"and other recent authorities. The cuts illustratingcomets, meteors, and nebul, are nearly all takenfrom the French editions of Guillemin's "Comets"and Guillemin's "Heavens."

CONTENTS.

I. THE CELESTIAL SPHERE 3

II. THE SOLAR SYSTEM 41

I. THEORY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM 41

The Ptolemaic System 41

The Copernican System 44

Tycho Brahe's System 44

Kepler's System 44

The Newtonian System 48

II. THE SUN AND PLANETS 53

I. The Earth 53

Form and Size 53

Day and Night 57

The Seasons 64

Tides 68

The Day and Time 74

The Year 78

Weight of the Earth and Precession 83

II. The Moon 86

Distance, Size, and Motions 86

The Atmosphere of the Moon 109

The Surface of the Moon 114

III. Inferior and Superior Planets 130

Inferior Planets 130

Superior Planets 134

IV. The Sun 140

I. Magnitude and Distance of the Sun 140

II. Physical and Chemical Condition of the Sun 149

Physical Condition of the Sun 149

The Spectroscope 152

Spectra 158

Chemical Constitution of the Sun 164

Motion at the Surface of the Sun 168

III. The Photosphere and Sun-Spots 175

The Photosphere 175

Sun-Spots 179

IV. The Chromosphere and Prominences 196

V. The Corona 204

V. Eclipses 210

VI. The Three Groups of Planets 221

I. General Characteristics of the Groups 221

II. The Inner Group of Planets 225

Mercury 225

Venus 230

Mars

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