Improved Queen-Rearing or, How to Rear Large, Prolific, Long-Lived Queen Bees The Result of Nearly Half a Century's Experience in Rearing Queen Bees, Giving the Practical, Every-day Work of the Queen-Rearing Apiary
The cover image was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain.
HOW TO REAR LARGE, PROLIFIC, LONG-LIVED QUEEN BEES
The Result of Nearly Half a Century’s Experience in Rearing Queen Bees, Giving the Practical, Every-day Work of the Queen-Rearing Apiary
Improved Bay State closed-end frame Bee-Hive. Used by thousands of Bee-Keepers many years with great success. Construction of brood-frames same as the Dawzeubaker. Frames are reversible and held in position by side boards and two iron rods.
This little book is written and designed to instructthose engaged in bee-keeping in the art of rearingqueen bees. The long experience of the author inthis particular branch of apiculture, as herein detailed,may prove not only instructive but interesting. Thatthe work may meet the approbation of its readers is thewish of
Illustration of the original Bay State Bee-Hive. Invented and used by Henry Alley, more than twenty years ago. This hive was specially devised for wintering bees successfully on summer stands and for the production of the largest amount of honey.
|Breeding queen, where to keep||16|
|Cell building, how to prepare a colony for||18|
|Cell building, method number one||19|
|Cell building, method number two||26|
|Cell building, method number three||29|
|Cell building, feeding while going on||29|
|Cell building, how to prepare eggs for||21|
|Cell building, destroying eggs||22|
|Cell building, theory of using young bees||24|
|Cell building, how to rear the best||27|
|Drones, how to catch and destroy||37|
|Drones, how to obtain and preserve||44|
|Drone-trap, utility of||46|
|Honey, how to prevent candying||54|
|Nuclei, how to form||31|
|Nuclei, how to feed||44|
|Pipe for burning tobacco||41|
|Queen-cell frame, description of||38|
|Queens, how to care for||49|
|Queens, age at which they mate||49|
|Queens, virgin, forcing to mate||50|
|Queens, age at which they lay||51|
|Queens, to know fertile from unfertile||50|
|Queens, fertilizing in confinement||51|
|Queens, respect bees show them||51|
|Queens, comparative size||53|
|Queen-rearing, first improvements||11|
|Queen-rearing, latest improved methods||12|
|Queen-rearing, on a large scale||14|
|Queen-rearing, proper conditions of apiary||15|
|Queen-rearing, to prepare eggs for||16|
|Queen-breeding colony, how to start||19|
|Queen-breeding hive, how to make||17|
|Queens, fertile, how to introduce||34|
|Queens, unfertile, how to introduce||35|
|Queen nursery, how to use||29|
|Queenless bees, necessity of||28|
In the year 1857 I had very little knowledge of apiculture,yet I had seen bees in hives apparently working, “makinghoney” as it was called in those days by all who keptbees; had heard all the talk about the “king bee,” andhad seen hives draped in mourning when a member of the bee-keepers’family died. I had also seen the bee-keeper and hisfamily out in the apiary pounding upon tin pans, ringing thedinner bell, and raising a hub-bub generally when a colony hadcast a swarm. Then I had seen bees “carry wax” on their legs,etc., etc.
Well, I did not require very much experience with bees tofind out that all the above performances were indulged in only byignorant and superstitious bee-keepers. With all the literaturewe now have concerning apiculture, some bee-keepers may befound who know no more about bees than those who kept them50 years ago.
In the month of July, 1857, I found a fine swarm of beeshanging upon a limb of a tree in my garden. The bees were hivedin a small packing box, and at once commenced to build comband store honey. When fall came the box was well filled withbees and stores, and the colony went into winter quarters in finecondition, and came out in the spring strong in numbers, provingto be a first-class colony in all respects.
In the spring of 1858, I purchased another colony which wasin a box-hive that had a 7 × 9 glass in the back side through whichI watched the bees many hours. Well do I remember the greatinterest I took in bees at that time. One day while watching the10bees through the glass, I saw the queen pass around one of thecombs, and had really seen the great “king bee.” Before winterset in, I had not only seen other queen bees but had actuallyreared a few. Then I got an idea that I had learned all therewas to know about bees and queen rearing. But this little bit ofegotism was dispelled by each year’s experience, and I soon foundthat there was much to learn about bee-keeping. And now, aftermy long experience in queen rearing, I find that no one can livelong enough to learn all there is to know about the subject of beesand apiculture generally. Surely no one can learn the art of beekeeping in one year as many bee-keepers of the present day claim.
Well, at the end of one year’s experience, I was seized with adesire to go into queen rearing extensively. By this time I hadlearned that every colony of bees had a queen and that droneswere male bees; and also found out hundreds of things aboutbees that I never before had known. I had discovered that whena colony of bees was deprived of its queen it would at once commenceto construct queen cells, and rear several young queens.
Rearing queens was so fascinating that I soon began to rearthem in great numbers, in fact I had them growing at all timesduring the warm months. Of course this was only for amusementas no bee-keepers were in want of queens, nor was there any demandfor them. Well, I continued to advance in the art and enlargemy experience, not only in rearing queens, but in bee-keepinggenerally. About this time I found a man who had also been“stricken” with the bee fever and he had as much experiencewith bees as myself, and had reared queens merely to exhibit at acattle fair held in his town and only three miles from my place.This man had made a frame about twelve inches square, to whichglass was fastened on both sides, thus forming a one comb observationhive. A small piece of brood comb containing eggs andlarvae was fastened at the top of the frame by strings, and the bees,of which there were about a pint, were actually building queencells. Thousands of interested people were watching the beeswhile at work, and many of the people were asking all sorts ofquestions about queens, bees and honey. My first queens werereared in about the same way as above described.
In the year 1860 I practiced queen rearing on a larger scale,as we had then heard about Mr. Langstroth and his wonderfulbook and still more wonderful hive, which is today more marvelousthan anything else connected with apiculture. From this timeon rapid advancement was made not only in queen rearing but in11all branches of bee culture. We soon went from box-hives tomovable-comb hives. About this time the famous Italian beescame in, and then queen-rearing was carried on in earnest; notfor amusement but queens were reared by the thousand for sale.At first they were sent by express in small one-comb boxes, thenby mail to all parts of the United States; later on queens went bymail to all parts of