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The Works of William Harvey M.D. Translated from the Latin with a life of the author

The Works of William Harvey M.D.
Translated from the Latin with a life of the author
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Title: The Works of William Harvey M.D. Translated from the Latin with a life of the author
Release Date: 2019-02-10
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Date added: 27 March 2019
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Table of Contents.
General Index.

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{ii} 

THE
S Y D E N H A M   S O C I E T Y

INSTITUTED
MDCCCXLIII

LONDON
MDCCCXLVII.

{iii}

PRINTED BY C. AND J. ADLARD,
BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE.

{iv}

THE WORKS
OF
WILLIAM HARVEY, M.D.

PHYSICIAN TO THE KING, PROFESSOR OF ANATOMY AND SURGERY
TO THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS
TRANSLATED FROM THE LATIN

WITH
A   L I F E   O F   T H E   A U T H O R
BY
ROBERT WILLIS, M.D.
MEMBER OF THE ROYAL COLLEGES OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS OF ENGLAND,
CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF
GÖTTINGEN, OF THE IMPERIAL SOCIETY OF PHYSICIANS
AND SURGEONS OF VIENNA, AND OF THE
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA,
ETC. ETC.


L O N D O N
PRINTED FOR THE SYDENHAM SOCIETY
MDCCCXLVII.

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PREFACE.

When, at the instance of the governing body of the Sydenham Society, Iundertook to edit the Works of the immortal Discoverer of theCirculation of the Blood, in English, I believed that the chief of theseWorks were already extant in our language, in such a shape as would makelittle more from an editor necessary than a careful revision of thetext. I had unwarily adopted the idea, very gratuitously originated byAubrey, that Harvey was what is called an indifferent scholar, and thatthe English versions of his writings were the proper originals, theLatin versions the translations. Having access to the handsome editionof Harvey’s Works in Latin, revised by Drs. Lawrence and Mark Akenside,and published by the College of Physicians in 1766, I had alwaysreferred to that when the course of my studies led me to consult Harvey.Of the English versions, or any other edition, I knew little or nothing.On proceeding to my new duty of English editor, however, I immediatelysaw that the masterwork of Harvey on the Motions of the Heart and Blood,far from having the character of an originally English writing, musthave been rendered into English by one but little conversant with thesubject, that it was both extremely rebutting in point of style and fullof egregious errors, and that nothing short of an entirely newtranslation could do justice to this admirable treatise, or secure forit, at the present day, the attention it deserved. Full of zeal, and{vii}making of my task a labour of love, I had soon completed a newtranslation of the Exercises on the Heart and Blood, with equal pleasureand profit to myself.

The work on Generation came next under review. The English version ofthis I had heard it positively asserted was the original, was Harvey’sown; here therefore my business of editor would properly begin. But Ihad not gone through a couple of pages of the text, before difficultieslike those already experienced met me again. That the statement abovereferred to was erroneous, speedily became apparent; and a littleinquiry enabled me to discover that the English version of the Exerciseson Generation was the work of a physician named Llewellen. Though notincorrect generally, there was, nevertheless, a great deal that I wishedhad been otherwise rendered; and then the scientific and professionallanguage of two centuries back looked strangely when examined by theeye, and had an unusual sound when tried upon the ear. Only anxious topresent to my brethren in the most appropriate and attractive formpossible, the writings of him who had still met me in his Works and withhis contemplative look in his Portrait as a kind of divinity inmedicine, I even girded myself up for the long and laborious enterpriseof translating anew into our mother tongue the work on Generation, andat length achieved my task, not without difficulty.

The short paper on the Anatomy of Thomas Parr appears in thePhilosophical Transactions in English; but it stands there as atranslation; and having now translated so much myself, I even thought itwould be well to translate that also, and so it was achieved.

The Letters, though frequently quoted, have never ap{viii}peared in Englishbefore. They will be found both highly interesting and important. Torender them was a light and pleasant task.—In a word, the Englishreader is now presented with an entirely new translation of the writingsof William Harvey; everything of our illustrious countryman worthy ofpublication that has come down to us, being here included.[1]

The reader will perceive that I have abstained from annotation andcommentary in the course of my labour. The purpose of the Council of theSydenham Society, as I understood it, was to give the Works of WilliamHarvey in English now, as he himself gave them in Latin two centuriesago. Entirely approving of this intention, I felt that anything likecorrections of statements and opinions, which could so readily have beenmade under the lights of modern physiology, would have beenimpertinencies, and I therefore abstained from them. To have carried outand completed the history of Harvey’s two grand subjects, would alsohave been easy; but{ix} this would have been almost as obviously out ofplace as commentary, and the inclination towards such an agreeableundertaking was also resisted.

It appeared, nevertheless, that the Works of our great physiologicaldiscoverer might be advantageously prefaced by some account of his Lifeand Writings. One great motive with me, indeed, for undertaking theoffice of Editor of the Works of Harvey was, that I might thus find afitting opportunity for writing his life, a task which, in othercircumstances than those that now surround me, it had still been acherished purpose with me to perform. The Life of Harvey, by one who hadmaintained a familiarity with anatomy and physiology, had always seemedto me a desideratum in our medical literature.

This portion of my work I have only achieved with an effort, and atsomething like disadvantage. Incessantly engaged by night and by day inthe laborious and responsible duties of a country practice, enjoyingnothing of learned leisure, but snatching from the hours that shouldrightfully be given to rest, the time that was necessary to composition,remote too from means of information which I must nevertheless send forand consult—for I could not draw entirely upon memory and oldrecollections of Harvey, I have been much longer about this work thanits length might indicate. In spite of many disadvantages, however, Itrust it will be found that I have included everything of moment in mynarrative of the life of Harvey; that I have set his claims to the wholeand sole merit of the discovery of the Circulation in a new and clearerlight than they have yet been seen; and that I have done more than anypreceding biographer in exhibiting his moral nature; for truly he was asnoble in nature as he was intellectually great.{x}

The Wills of great men have always been looked on as calculated to throwlight on the character of their authors; and I have, therefore, greatpleasure in presenting to the medical world, for the first time, theWill of William Harvey.

It only remains for me, in conclusion, to explain and to apologise forthe long delay that has taken place in the appearance of this volume.The work was, in fact, nearly three-fourths done more than a year ago;but with the change made in my sphere of action about that time, allaptitude for literary labour seemed to forsake me,—the bow, to use acommon metaphor, became unbent, and for a while resisted every effort tostring it anew; and, then, when restrung at length, how constantly was Ihindered in my purpose to use it! With this brief explanation, whichwill be so well appreciated by the great majority of my fellow membersof the Sydenham Society, I confidently throw myself on their kindconsideration, and pray them to pardon the delay that has occurred.

R. WILLIS.

Barnes, Surrey;
Feb. 15th, 1847.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS.

 PAGE
Preface v
Life of William Harveyxv
Last Will and Testament of William Harveylxxxv
AN ANATOMICAL DISQUISITION ON THE MOTION OF THE HEART AND BLOOD IN ANIMALS.
Dedication3
Introduction9
CHAPTER
I. The author’s motives for writing19
II. Of the Motions of the Heart, as seen in the Dissection of Living Animals21
III. Of the Motions of Arteries, as seen in the Dissection of Living Animals24
IV. Of the Motion of the Heart and its Auricles, as seen in the Bodies of Living Animals26
V. Of the Motion, Action, and Office of the Heart31
VI. Of the Course by which the Blood is carried from the Vena Cava into the Arteries, or from the Right into the Left Ventricle of the Heart35
VII. The Blood percolates the Substance of the Lungs from the Right Ventricle of the Heart into the Pulmonary Veins and Left Ventricle{xiii}40
VIII. Of the Quantity of Blood passing through the Heart from the Veins to the Arteries; and of the Circular Motion of the Blood45
IX. That there is a Circulation of the Blood is confirmed from the first proposition48
X. The First Position: of the Quantity of Blood passing from the Veins to the Arteries. And that there is a Circuit of the Blood, freed from objections, and farther confirmed by Experiment52
XI. The Second Position is demonstrated54
XII. That there is a Circulation of the Blood is shown from the Second Position demonstrated60
XIII. The Third Position is confirmed: and the Circulation of the Blood is demonstrated from it62
XIV. Conclusion of the Demonstration of the Circulation68
XV. The Circulation of the Blood is further confirmed by probable reasonsib.
XVI. The Circulation of the Blood is further proved from certain consequences71
XVII. The Motion and Circulation of the Blood are confirmed from the particulars apparent in the Structure of the Heart, and from those things which Dissection unfolds75
THE FIRST ANATOMICAL DISQUISITION ON THE CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD, ADDRESSED TO JOHN RIOLAN89
A SECOND DISQUISITION TO JOHN RIOLAN; IN WHICH MANY OBJECTIONS TO THE CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD ARE REFUTED109{xiv}
ANATOMICAL EXERCISES ON THE GENERATION OF ANIMALS; TO WHICH ARE ADDED, ESSAYS ON PARTURITION; ON THE MEMBRANES, AND FLUIDS OF THE UTERUS; AND ON CONCEPTION.
 PAGE
Dedication145
Introduction151
    Of the manner and order of acquiring knowledge154
    Of the same matters, according to Aristotle158
    Of the method to be pursued in studying Generation163
ON ANIMAL GENERATION.
Wherefore we begin with the history of the hen’s egg169
Of the seat of generation171
Of the upper part of the hen’s uterus, or the ovary172
Of the infundibulum179
Of the external portion of the uterus of the common fowl180
Of the
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