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Audubon the Naturalist (Vol. II of II) A History of his Life and Time

Audubon the Naturalist (Vol. II of II)
A History of his Life and Time
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Title: Audubon the Naturalist (Vol. II of II) A History of his Life and Time
Release Date: 2019-02-28
Type book: Text
Copyright Status: Public domain in the USA.
Date added: 27 March 2019
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Transcriber's Note:

Obvious typographical errors in the editor's text have been corrected. Inconsistent or incorrect accents, spelling, capitalization, and punctuation in the original documents and quotes were left as printed.

  • On page 28, "aimable" should possibly be "amiable".
  • On page 40, "as taken umbrage" should possibly be "has taken umbrage".
  • On page 58, "Chamley, of New Castle" should possibly be "Charnley of Newcastle".
  • On page 100, "Mr. A." should possibly be "Mrs. A".
  • On page 233 "youself" should possibly be "yourself".
  • On page 418 "pp. 197*-204*" should possibly not have asterisks.
  • "£##" and "##£" are used interchangeably (with and without spacing.)
  • The same is true for "$##" and "##$".
  • "Major Glassel" (page 7) and "Major Classel" (page 24) appear to be the same person.

Some references in the Index are incorrect.

This is the second volume of a two volume work. Linked cross-references to Volume I are designed to work when the book is read on line.

Download Vol. I from http://www.gutenberg.org/files/58983/58983-h/58983-h.htm

Download Vol. II from http://www.gutenberg.org/files/58984/58984-h/58984-h.htm

Medallion

AUDUBON
THE
NATURALIST

John J. Audubon

AFTER PORTRAIT BY GEORGE P. A. HEALY, 1838; ORIGINAL IN POSSESSIONOF THE BOSTON SOCIETY OF NATURAL HISTORY.

AUDUBON
THE
NATURALIST

A HISTORY OF HIS LIFE AND TIME

BY
FRANCIS HOBART HERRICK, Ph.D., Sc.D.
PROFESSOR OF BIOLOGY IN WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY;
AUTHOR OF "THE HOME LIFE OF WILD BIRDS," ETC.

IN TWO VOLUMES
ILLUSTRATED

Printer Logo

VOLUME II

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY
NEW YORK                  LONDON
1917

Copyright, 1917, by
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY

Printed in the United States of America

v

CONTENTS OF VOLUME II

PAGE
CHAPTER XXVI
Explorations in Florida and the South Atlantic
Obituary published in London on day of his arrival in New York—Assistancefrom the Government—John Bachman becomes his friend—Winterin Charleston—His folios as gifts—To Florida with twoassistants—Letters to Featherstonhaugh—St. Augustine—Misadventuresin the mud of East Florida—Audubon on Florida's future—Atthe sources of the St. John's—Aboard the Marion—Returnfrom Key West—A merchant of Savannah—Disbanding ofparty at Charleston1
CHAPTER XXVII
Eastern Visit and Explorations in the North Atlantic
Bachman's success as a canvasser—Boston visit—Journey to Portland—Ascentof the St. John's—Return overland—Victor Audubon becomeshis father's agent—Winter in Boston—The Golden Eagle—Strickenwith illness—Expedition to Labrador planned—Americansupport—Sails from Eastport with five assistants—Discoveriesand adventures on the Labrador—Safe return—Another winter inCharleston—Sued for old debts—Experience with vultures—Adviceand instruction to a son—Working habits—Return to England 26
CHAPTER XXVIII
Thorns on the Rose
Contributions to magazines—Attacked in Philadelphia—Statement toSully—The rattlesnake episode—Behavior of a Philadelphia editor—Mistakenidentity in account of the reptile—Lesson of the serpent'stooth—Audubon's long lost lily rediscovered—"Nosariansand Anti-Nosarians"—Bachman and Audubon on vultures—Aim ofthe critics—Authorship in the Biography—His most persistentheckler—Pitfall of analogy67vi
CHAPTER XXIX
Sidelights on Audubon and His Contemporaries
What was a Quinarian?—Controversy over the authorship of the OrnithologicalBiography—Audubon's quaint proposal—Swainson's reply—Friendshipsuffers a check—Species-mongers—Hitting at oneover the shoulders of another—Swainson as a biographer—His career—Bonaparte'sgrievance—A fortune in ornithology—Labors ofJohn Gould and his relations with Audubon—The freemasonry ofnaturalists93
CHAPTER XXX
Audubon and MacGillivray
In London once more—MacGillivray's assistance continued—Return toEdinburgh—MacGillivray's character and accomplishments—Audubon'sacknowledgments—Tributes of "Christopher North"—Resultsof overwork—Fusillades from "Walton Hall"—Progress of thelarge plates125
CHAPTER XXXI
Third American Tour, 1836-1837
In New York harbor—Collections from the Far West—Audubon's effortsto secure them—Return to Boston—Friendship of DanielWebster—Renewed efforts to obtain the Nuttall-Townsend collection—Expeditionto the west coast of Florida—Deferred governmentalaid—Another winter with Bachman—Overland journey toNew Orleans—On board the Crusader—Mistaken for pirates—WithHarris and his son explores the Gulf coast—The Republic of Texas—Visitto its capital and president—Meeting in Charleston—Marriageof his son—Their return to England146
CHAPTER XXXII
Audubon's Greatest Triumph
Extension of his work—Financial panic and revolt of patrons—Newwestern collections—His "book of Nature" completed—Work on theletterpress in Edinburgh—Vacation in the Highlands—Commissionsviito Harris—Parting address to the reader—Dissolution of theHavell engraving establishment—The residuum of The Birds ofAmerica—Robert Havell, engraver, and his family—Lizars' firstedition and the Havell reissues of plates—Brief manual for collectors—Appreciations—Totaledition of The Birds of America—Pastand present prices—The Rothschild incident168
CHAPTER XXXIII
New Enterprises and Life at "Minnie's Land"
Settlement in New York—The Birds in miniature, and work on theQuadrupeds—Marriage of Victor Audubon—Coöperation of Bachmanin the Quadrupeds secured—Prospectuses—History of the octavoedition of the Birds—Baird's enthusiasm and efficient aid—Parkman'sWren—Baird's visit to Audubon in New York—"Lookout for Martens," and wildcats—New home on the Hudson—Godwin'spilgrimage to "Minnie's Land" in 1842208
CHAPTER XXXIV
Expedition to the Upper Missouri
Ambitions at fifty-seven—Plans his last expedition in the rôle of naturalist—Credentialsfrom public men—Canvassing tour in Canadadescribed—Baird's plans to accompany Audubon west frustrated—Westernexpedition begun—Ascent of the Missouri and Yellowstone—Discoveriesof new birds—A wilderness that howls—Buffalo hunting—Passingof the great herds—Return from Fort Union—Incidenton the canal boat—Completion of the octavo edition of theBirds239
CHAPTER XXXV
Final Work Days
Painting the Quadrupeds—Assistance of Bachman and Audubon's sons—Copperplates of the Birds go through the fire in New York—Audubona spectator at the ruins—Bachman's ultimatum—Successof the illustrations of the Quadrupeds—Bachman's letterpress—Recommendationof Baird—J. W. Audubon in London—Bachman'sassistants—His life and labors—Decline of Audubon's powers—Dr.Brewer's visit—Audubon's last letters—His death at "Minnie'sLand"261viii
CHAPTER XXXVI
Afterword: Audubon's Family in America
Bachman completes his text on the Quadrupeds—Victor Audubon's successin canvassing—John Woodhouse Audubon's family—Newhouses at "Minnie's Land"—Second octavo edition of the Birds—VictorAudubon's illness and death—Attempt to reissue The Birdsof America in America—The residual stock of this imperfect edition—Deathof John Woodhouse Audubon—His career and work asan artist and field collector—Mrs. Audubon resumes her old vocation—Fateof "Minnie's Land"—Death of Mrs. Audubon—Hershare in her husband's fame—Story written on Audubon's originaldrawings—Fate of the original copper plates of the Birds—A boycomes to the rescue—"Minnie's Land" today—The "Cave"—A real"Audubon Park"291
APPENDIX I
Original Documents
1. Copy of the original bill rendered by Doctor Sanson, physicianat Les Cayes, Santo Domingo, to Jean Audubon, containing theonly existing record of the birth of his son, Jean Jacques FougèreAudubon, on April 26, 1785; Les Cayes, December 29, 1783-October19, 1785314
1a. Translation of the Sanson Bill315
2. Copy of the Act of Adoption of Fougère (John James Audubon)and Muguet (Rosa Audubon), Nantes, March 7, 1794328
3. Copy of the Act of Baptism of Jean Jacques Fougère Audubon,Nantes, October 23, 1800329
4. Copy of a bill of sale of Negroes rendered by Monsieur Ollivierto Monsieur Audubon, Les Cayes, Santo Domingo, 1785330
5. Statement of Accounts of Messrs. Audubon, Lacroix, Formon &Jacques in the purchase of Negroes from M. Th. Johnston, LesCayes, Santo Domingo, 1785331
6. Copy of bill of sale of Negroes to Monsieur Audubon, and aStatement of his account with Messrs. Lucas Brothers & Constant,Les Cayes, Santo Domingo, August 7, 1785-June 9, 1788334
7. Accounts of William Bakewell of "Fatland Ford" as protégé ofhis future son-in-law, and as attorney or agent for Audubon &Rozier, giving certain exact indications of the naturalist's earlymovements and personal relations, before and after finally leaving"Mill Grove," January 4, 1805-April 9, 1810336
8. Concerning a Power of Attorney issued by Lieutenant Audubonand Anne Moynet Audubon to Ferdinand Rozier and John Audubon,ixthe Younger, at Couëron, France, in 1805; parts inFrench translated by a Philadelphia notary; signatures of originaldocument authenticated by the Mayor of Couëron, October21, 1805; his attest of the legality of Anne Moynet Audubon'ssignature at Couëron, October 27, 1805; authentication of thesignature of the Mayor of Couëron by the Subprefect of Savenay,November 27, 1805; attest of the Subprefect's signature bythe Prefect340
9. Articles of Association of Jean Audubon and Ferdinand Rozierto govern their partnership in business; drawn up at Nantes,March 23, 1806344
9a. Translation of the Articles of Association of Jean Audubon andFerdinand Rozier346
10. Power of Attorney issued by Lieutenant Jean Audubon, AnneMoynet Audubon and Claude François Rozier, to their respectivesons, Jean Audubon and Ferdinand Rozier, at Nantes, France,April 4, 1806, eight days before the latter embarked to Americato enter upon their partnership in business350
10a. Translation of the Power of Attorney issued by Jean Audubon,Anne Moynet Audubon, and Claude François Rozier to JeanAudubon and Ferdinand Rozier, April 4, 1806351
11. Account current of John Audubon and Ferdinand Rozier withthe estate of Benjamin Bakewell, late commission merchant inNew York, showing their dealings and standing with this houseduring the first sixteen months of their business experience in theWest. Covers the period August 1, 1807, to December 13, 1808354
11a. Final Account of Francis Dacosta, rendered July 25, 1807, toLieutenant Jean Audubon, his partner in the unfortunate miningenterprise at "Mill Grove"; later contested and settled by arbitration356
12. Quit Claim or Release given by John James Audubon to FerdinandRozier on the Dissolution of their Partnership in Business,at Sainte Geneviève, Upper Louisiana (Missouri), April 6, 1811359
13. Copy of a portion of the first Will of Lieutenant Jean Audubon,Couëron, May 20, 1812360
14. Copy of the second and last Will of Lieutenant Jean Audubon,March 15, 1816361
15. Copy of a portion of the first Will of Madame Anne Moynet,wife of Lieutenant Audubon, December 4, 1814363
16. Copy of a portion of the second Will of Madame Jean Audubon,May 10, 1816364
17. Copy of the third Will, "No. 169, of Madame Anne Moynet,widow of M. Jean Audubon, living at his house called "La Gerbetière,"and situated near the village of Port-Launay, not farfrom Couëron," December 26, 1819366
18. Copy of a portion of the fourth and last will of Madame JeanAudubon, living at the house of "The Turtle Doves" ("Les Tourterelles"),at Couëron, July 16, 1821367x
19. Notice of the death of Lieutenant Jean Audubon, from the officialregistry of Nantes, Nantes, February 19, 1818369
20. Letter of Lieutenant Jean Audubon to Francis Dacosta, hisAmerican agent and attorney, relating to the conduct of his son,and to the lead mine at "Mill Grove" farm, transliterated fromphotographic copy of duplicate (Letter No. 4) in Jean Audubon'sletter-book. Nantes, March 10, 1805370
21. Letters of John James Audubon to Claude François Rozier,father, and to Ferdinand Rozier, son, immediately precedingand following his active partnership in business with the latter,1807 and 1812372
APPENDIX II
Audubon's Early Dated Drawings Made in France andAmerica
Drawings now in the collections of Mr. Joseph Y. Jeanes of Philadelphia,and formerly belonging to Mr. Edward Harris, of Moorestown,New Jersey; of Mr. John E. Thayer, Lancaster, Massachusetts,and of Harvard University375
APPENDIX III
"The Birds of America"
1. Final Lists of Subscribers to The Birds of America, folio edition,as published by Audubon in 1839380
2. Prospectus of The Birds of America, as issued in 1828, whenten Numbers of the original folio were engraved386
3. Prospectus of the Second (partial) Edition of The Birds ofAmerica, issued by John Woodhouse Audubon, through Messrs.Trubner & Company,
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