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Peru as It Is, Volume II (of 2) A Residence in Lima, and Other Parts of the Peruvian Republic, Comprising an Account of the Social and Physical Features of That Country

Peru as It Is, Volume II (of 2)
A Residence in Lima, and Other Parts of the Peruvian Republic, Comprising an Account of the Social and Physical Features of That Country
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Title: Peru as It Is, Volume II (of 2) A Residence in Lima, and Other Parts of the Peruvian Republic, Comprising an Account of the Social and Physical Features of That Country
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The Project Gutenberg eBook, Peru as It Is, Volume II (of 2), by ArchibaldSmith

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Title: Peru as It Is, Volume II (of 2)

A Residence in Lima, and Other Parts of the Peruvian Republic, Comprising an Account of the Social and Physical Features of That Country

Author: Archibald Smith

Release Date: March 15, 2019 [eBook #59063]

Language: English

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[i]

PERU AS IT IS:

A RESIDENCE IN LIMA,
AND OTHER PARTS OF THE PERUVIAN REPUBLIC,
COMPRISING
AN ACCOUNT OF THE SOCIAL AND PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THAT COUNTRY.

BY ARCHIBALD SMITH, M.D.

IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. II.

LONDON:
RICHARD BENTLEY, NEW BURLINGTON STREET,
Publisher in Ordinary to Her Majesty.
1839.

[ii]

LONDON:
PRINTED BY SAMUEL BENTLEY,
Dorset Street, Fleet Street.


[iii]

CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME.

CHAPTER I.
Site, population, and climate of Cerro Pasco.—Houses.—Coal, and other kinds of fuel.—Timber for use of the mines, &c.—Where brought from.—Fruit and provisions.—Mines.—Mantadas.—Boliches.—Habilitador.—Mint.—Returns of the mines.—Banks of Rescate.—Pasco foundery. Page 1
CHAPTER II.
Descent from Pasco to Huanuco.—Succession of works for grinding and amalgamating silver ore.—Quinoa.—Cajamarquilla.—Huariaca.—San Rafael.—Ambo.—Vale of Huanuco; its beauties and advantages.—State of agriculture in this vale, and traffic with Pasco.—The College named La Virtud Peruana.—Steam navigation on the river Huallaga, and civilization of the wild Indians of the Montaña.—Natural productions of the Montaña. 28
[iv]CHAPTER III.
The Department of Junin.—The river Marañon.—General sketch of the form of internal Government of Peru.—Particular account of the Prefectorate or Department of Junin.—Mines.—Agriculture.—Manufactures.—Public Instruction.—Hospitals and Charitable Asylums.—Vaccination.—Junta of Health.—Public Baths.—Police.—Pantheons.—Roads.—Posts.—Public Treasury at Pasco.—Administration of Justice.—National Militia. 65
CHAPTER IV.
Missionary College of Ocopa.—Its foundation, utility, downfall, and decree for its restoration.—Introduction of Christianity along the rivers Marañon, Huallaga, and Ucayali, &c. by the Jesuits and Franciscans.—Letter from Friar Manuel Plaza, the last great missionary of Ocopa, to the prefect of Junin. 113
CHAPTER V.
Christianized Indians of the Interior.—Their condition and character.—Hardships imposed on them.—Desire of revenge. 143
CHAPTER VI.
War of Independence.—Unsettled state of the country at the close of 1835 and early in 1836.—Gamarra’s Government.—Insurrections.—Guerilla and Freebooters.—Foreign Marines.—Lima invaded from the castles of Callao, under [v]command of Solar.—Orbegoso enters Lima.—Castles of Callao taken by assault.—Battle of Socabaya.—Salaverry taken prisoner.—Execution.—Public tranquillity hoped for under the protection of Santa-Cruz. 169
CHAPTER VII.
On Climate and Disease.—Panama, Guayaquil, Peru, and Chile. 196
APPENDIX.
On the Zoology of Western Peru 237
Geognostic description of the country in the environs of Arequipa, with an Analysis of the Mineral Waters in the vicinity of the same city 266
Steam Navigation 286
Ecclesiastical Jubilee 291
Adieu to Lima 303

[vi]

ERRATA.

Page 13, line 9, for polverilla and massisa read polvorilla and maciza.
128, 17, and in all other instances, for Pozuro read Pozuzo.
187, 2, for realise read realize.
239, 6, for the aborigines read those.

Transcriber’s Note: The errata have been corrected but otherwise theoriginal spelling (in both English and Spanish) has been preserved.


[1]

PERU AS IT IS.

CHAPTER I.

Site, population, and climate of Cerro Pasco.—Houses.—Coal,and other kinds of fuel.—Timber for use of the mines,&c.—Where brought from.—Fruit and provisions.—Mines.—Mantadas.—Boliches.—Habilitador.—Mint.—Returnsof the mines.—Banks of Rescate.—Pasco foundery.

The town of Cerro Pasco, about fourteenthousand feet above the level of the sea, hasits site in an irregular hollow on the northernside of a group of small hills, which commenceat Old Pasco on the north-east limitof the high table-land of Bombon.

Cerro Pasco is thus situated at nearlyequal distances, or about twenty leagues,from Tarma on the south and Huanaco onthe north, both after their kind fertile and[2]productive. It has the fine lake of Chinchaycocha,near old Pasco on its south; and, onthe north, the outskirts of the town almostreach to a funnel-mouthed gullet which leadswith a rapid descent to the village of Quinoa,three leagues distant. Its eastern and westernaspects are bounded in the view by therespective ridges of the eastern and westernCordillera; and the intervening spaces betweenthis bed of Peruvian treasure, andthe stupendous barriers presented by thesecommanding summits, forming a grand amphitheatre,are enlivened throughout muchof their extent by the innumerable herds ofsheep and folds of cattle that roam and flourishupon them. Here and there are seengroups of the tame llama and shy vicuña;whilst the whole landscape is variegatedwith lakes, rivulets, and marshes, whosesurfaces are ever rippled by the flutteringflocks of geese, ducks, snipes, plovers, water-hens,herons, yanavicas, flamingos, &c. which[3]at their proper and appropriate seasons animateand adorn this wide expanse. Norshould we omit to mention that far towardsthe west, and skirting the limits of the greatplains, are seen from the surrounding heightsstrange fragments of rock, as in the neighbourhoodof Huallay, that assume to the distanteye the appearance of dark pine-treesrising under the shade of the adjacentmountains.

The waters of this mineral district arepartly carried off by the famous Adit of Quiullacocha,and a considerable portion of thesenaturally percolate northward into the hollowof Rumillana near to Cerro, from whencestarts the spring Puceoyaco, the source of theriver Huallaga.

The population of Cerro Pasco is in agreat degree migratory, for it increases anddiminishes according as the mines are highlyproductive, or in a state of poverty and inundationfor want of proper drainage: were the[4]drainage perfect, the treasure that might beextracted would be incalculable. The numberof inhabitants is never, perhaps, under fouror five thousand, and it has been known toswell up to thrice this amount,—the mostactive hands happily finding accommodationunder ground. When the mines were thusproductive, the abode of the master-minerrang with the clink of hard dollars, as the diewas kept in constant motion; and the fairsex crowded from the more genial vales, andenlivened the miners’ home with the song,guitar, and dance.

The climate of Cerro Pasco is for nearlyone half the year, or from the end of Novemberto May, exceedingly gloomy andvariable. In the course of a few hours, thewind is often observed to take the roundof the compass; and in the same time itchanges from fair to rain, from rain to sleet,snow, hail, and rain again. The lanes, forstreets they merit not to be termed, are[5]during the greater part of these monthswet and miry. The thermometer of Fahrenheit,during this period, rarely rises above44° in the shade, and seldom falls so low asthe freezing point.

But during the dry season, which reignsfrom May to November, it is much otherwise;and then, though the sun at noonshines forth with great power in the faceof a cloudless canopy, the frosts at night areintense, and the evenings and the morningsare keenly piercing and cold. In the courseof the month of August the air is so remarkablydry that the nose and fauces becomeparched and painful. The writer sufferedso much from this troublesome affection asto find it necessary to seek a more temperateair a few leagues off, when the ailmentdisappeared immediately.

The severity of the climate of Cerro Pascohad little to mitigate its effects in the mannerwherein houses were constructed in the[6]time of the Spaniards. The dwellings arecovered with thatch, and this is the unfortunatecause of frequent and destructive firesbreaking out in the town. To avoid suchaccidents, one or two houses have been latelycovered with lead.

It was not until the arrival of the PeruvianMining Company, in December 1825,that the inhabitants were taught how to mitigatethe evils of their inclement homeby the construction of chimneys and properfire-places, as well as glazed windows;

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