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David Livingstone

David Livingstone
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Title: David Livingstone
Release Date: 2018-05-07
Type book: Text
Copyright Status: Public domain in the USA.
Date added: 27 March 2019
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DAVID LIVINGSTONE

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DAVID LIVINGSTONE.

DAVID LIVINGSTONE

BY
C. SILVESTER HORNE, M.P.
WITH ILLUSTRATIONS
New York
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1916
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[Image unavailable.]
MACMILLAN AND CO., Limited
LONDON . BOMBAY . CALCUTTA
MELBOURNE

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
NEW YORK . BOSTON . CHICAGO
DALLAS . SAN FRANCISCO

THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, Ltd.
TORONTO

All rights reserved

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PREFACE

On March 19th, 1913, a hundred years will have passed since DavidLivingstone was born. It is only forty years since his body was carriedby faithful hands from the centre of Africa to the coast that he mightbe buried among his peers in Westminster Abbey. In those forty yearsgreat and astounding changes have been witnessed in the Continent whichis associated with his fame. The campaign he fought against theslave-system that desolated the vast district drained by the Zambesi hadto be renewed to free the population on the banks of the Congo. SouthernAfrica has been reconstructed and consolidated. The Upper and the LowerNile have witnessed many strange vicissitudes of history. Other nameshave become great in men’s mouths. Some have been associated with vastpolitical enterprises; while some, with a disinterestedness as noble asLivingstone’s, have been at once the pioneers and the martyrs of aChristian civilisation. But nothing that has happened since hasdiminished by a single{vi} laurel the wreath he won, and will wear forever. With every decade his fame greatens; and whatever our views onAfrican problems may be, we may all agree that her white population maywell pray for a double portion of his spirit. At first it seemedunnecessary to re-write his life. The task has been so well fulfilled bymany sympathetic biographers. For anyone who has the patience and theleisure it is to be found recorded in the fascinating pages of hisjournals. But it is so great a possession that there seemed to be roomfor yet another attempt to present it to those in our busy century whoask for short measure and a clear, simple narrative of facts. This iswhat the present biography aspires to be. The author has aimed not somuch at telling the story as at allowing the story to tell itself. Itmay be added that, in the belief of the writer, Livingstone is greatest,not as a scientist, nor an explorer, but as a man and a missionary.{vii}

CONTENTS

 PAGE
ChapterI1
ChapterII22
ChapterIII54
ChapterIV66
ChapterV85
ChapterVI106
ChapterVII138
ChapterVIII165
ChapterIX179
ChapterX191
ChapterXICharacteristics229
Index245

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

 PAGE
DAVID LIVINGSTONEFrontispiece
THE CLYDE AND RUINS OF THE OLD MILL AT BLANTYRE 13
WHERE LIVINGSTONE LIVED AT ONGAR13
LIVINGSTONE ATTACKED BY A LION32
PREACHING ON THE JOURNEY UP-COUNTRY77
THE TRAGEDY OF CENTRAL AFRICA161
“I READ THE BIBLE THROUGH FOUR TIMES WHILST I WAS IN MANYUEMA”169
THE MANYUEMA AMBUSCADE175
STANLEY FINDS LIVINGSTONE181
ON THE LAST MARCH211
CARRYING THE BODY TO THE SEA223
MAP OF LIVINGSTONE’S JOURNEYS IN AFRICA At end

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DR. LIVINGSTONE

CHAPTER I

The year 1813 in which my story opens was a momentous one in the historyof Europe. The titanic struggle with Napoleon was nearing its crisis.Victor at Lutzen and Bautzen, he had been defeated at Leipzig, on one ofthe bloodiest battlefields in modern warfare. Away in the Pyrenees,Wellington was grappling with Soult, and step by step driving him backon to French soil. Among those who were fighting in the ranks of theBritish army were at least two men bearing the name of Livingstone. Itis doubtful whether they even heard, amid the excitement and peril ofthe time, that away in peaceful far Blantyre, and in their brother{2}Neil’s home, a lad had been born, and christened by the good, soundscriptural name of David. Yet it may come to be believed some day thatthe birth of David Livingstone was of more vital influence upon thedestiny of the world even than the battle in which Napoleon’s star setin blood two years later. For to open up a continent, and lead the wayin the Christianisation of its countless millions was one of the “morerenowned” victories of peace—a more difficult and notable achievementthan to overthrow one form of military domination in Europe.

The family of Livingstones or Livingstons—for David Livingstone himselfspelt his name for many years without the final “e”—came from theIsland of Ulva off the coast of Argyllshire. Not much of interest isknown about them except that one of them died at Culloden fighting forthe Stuarts; so that the “fighting blood” in their veins had its waywith them before David’s more immediate kinsmen crossed the seas to thePeninsula. The most distinguished member{3} of the family inherited theHighlander’s daring and love of exploits combined with the most pacificspirit, and left behind him an unstained record as an explorer who neverlifted his hand to do hurt to anyone through all the perils of hisadventurous career. Towards the close of the eighteenth century hisgrandfather had crossed from Ulva and settled in Blantyre, a village onthe Clyde that had certainly no romantic attraction. He was employed ina cotton factory there. Most of his sons went off to the wars; but oneof them, Neil, settled in Blantyre as a dealer in tea. He had beenpreviously apprenticed to David Hunter, a tailor; and, as many a goodapprentice has done before him, married his master’s daughter. NeilLivingstone and his brave wife had a hard fight of it to make a livingout of a small tea business, and to educate and rear their children. Twoof the children died in infancy; but three sons and two daughters grewup in that humble home. David was the second son. He was born on March19th, 1813.{4}

The small struggling tradesman has had little justice done to him eitherby the novelist or by common repute. He is usually represented as a manwho cannot afford to keep a soul, and whose interests are limited tosordid and petty transactions across a counter, not always nor often ofa scrupulous and honourable character. The reputation is veryill-deserved. The small shop has proved itself as good a training groundas any other for scholars, and saints and heroes; and, but for the factthat our prejudices die hard, we should recognise that it is so. NeilLivingstone and his wife may have lived a narrow life, servingfaithfully their customers and dividing their interests between theirfamily, their business, and the little Independent Chapel of which NeilLivingstone was a Deacon. But they found their sphere large enough forthe practice of the fundamental Christian virtues, as well as for thenoblest of all interests—the interest in the progress of the Kingdom ofGod throughout the world. There was one family tradition of which DavidLivingstone{5} was immensely proud. A saying had come down to themattributed to an ancestor that in all the family history there was norecord of any dishonest man. When Deacon Neil Livingstone and his wifehad passed away, the epitaph on their grave recorded the gratitude oftheir children for “poor and honest parents.” In this simple and publicfashion they expressed their thanks for the honesty of one who, when hesold a pound of tea, gave neither short weight, nor an adulteratedarticle. They also gave thanks for the poverty of their parents,recognising in poverty one of those hard but kind necessities that makefor industry and courage and patience; and that the children of the pooroftener leave the world their debtor for serviceable activities than thechildren of the well-to-do, who have less spur to their ambitions. Itwas eminently characteristic of David Livingstone that he should thusavow his thanks for the honesty and poverty of his father and mother.There are those still living who recall the manly pride with which hewas wont to{6} refer to “my own order, the honest poor.”

The mother of David Livingstone was a woman of great charm and force ofcharacter—“a delicate little woman, with a wonderful flow of goodspirits.” In her, rare devoutness and sterling common sense werecombined. She was the careful and thrifty housewife, who had to makeevery sixpence go as far as possible; but she was remembered for herunfailing cheerfulness and serenity, and there was always something tobe saved out of the meagre income when the work of the Church of Christneeded extra support. She came of Covenanting stock, and her father,David Hunter, the tailor, received his first religious impressions at anopen-air service, held while the snow was falling fast, and used to tellthat so absorbed was he in the realisation of the truth of the Gospel,that, though before the end of the sermon the snow was ankle-deep, hehad no sensation of cold. He lived to be eighty-seven, was a close andprolific reader, bore severe reverses of fortune with unflinching{7}courage, and earned the high respect of the countryside.

It is impossible to exaggerate what David Livingstone owed to the stockfrom which he sprang and the bracing influences of his earlyenvironment. There were two drawbacks to his home education. It seemsthat the Deacon had put two classes of book on his private indexexpurgatorius, as being dangerous—novels, and books of science. So faras novels are concerned the harm done was probably slight; for no one iswell-read in the Bible and the Pilgrim’s Progress without receiving aliberal education, and the cultivation of the imagination; whilehistory, biography, books of travel, and missionary records amply servedthe same purpose. But the proscription of books of science was anevidence of the old evil creed that there is essential antagonismbetween science and religion. This assumption came near to doing Davidpermanent injury. His religious difficulties did not disappear until inhis own words “having lighted on those admirable works{8} of Dr. ThomasDick, ‘The Philosophy of Religion,’ and ‘The Philosophy of a FutureState’ it was gratifying to find that he had enforced my own convictionthat religion and science were friendly to one another.” Few people inthe nineteenth century were destined to do more towards the practicalreconciliation of science and religion than David Livingstone.

It is interesting to find that even in his very young days he had a mindand will of his own, and that not even the love and respect he felt forhis father could shake his own conviction of truth. The last time hisfather “applied the rod” was when David refused to read “Wilberforce’sPractical Christianity.” The boy thought the matter over in his cannyScotch way, and concluded that, on the whole, the rod was the lesssevere form of punishment. So he took the rod, and refused a religiousbook for which he had no use. Looking back upon his own religiousdevelopment in after years, he used to confess that at this stage he was“colour-blind.” When he was led{9} to see that God and Nature are “not atstrife,” and that God does not say one thing to the

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