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The Gyroscopic Compass_ A Non-Mathematical Treatment

The Gyroscopic Compass_ A Non-Mathematical Treatment
Category: Gyro compass
Title: The Gyroscopic Compass_ A Non-Mathematical Treatment
Release Date: 2018-05-22
Type book: Text
Copyright Status: Public domain in the USA.
Date added: 27 March 2019
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THE ENGINEER SERIES

THE GYROSCOPIC COMPASS
A NON-MATHEMATICAL TREATMENT

THE ENGINEER SERIES

THE
GYROSCOPIC COMPASS

A NON-MATHEMATICAL TREATMENT

BY

T. W. CHALMERS, B.Sc., A.M.I.Mech.E.
(On the Editorial Staff of “The Engineer”)

ILLUSTRATED

LONDON
CONSTABLE & COMPANY, LTD.
10 ORANGE STREET, LEICESTER SQUARE. W.C.
1920


v

Printed in Great Britain


PREFACE

The chapters composing this book originally appearedas a series of articles in The Engineer during January,February, and March of the current year. The articleswere written in the belief that many readers wouldwelcome a clear and full, non-mathematical exposition ofthe gyroscopic compass, its theory and practical construction.The gyro-compass represents at once the mostinvolved and abstruse and the most important andvaluable of all the practical applications to which thegyroscope, so far, has been put. As a navigationalinstrument it is now in practically universal use in all thechief war navies of the world, and is to-day being adoptedby several important representatives of the mercantilemarine. Remarkable figures were shown to the authorrecently which demonstrated that not only was navigationby the gyro-compass much more accurate than bythe magnetic compass, but that the increased accuracyreduced the length of the voyage of a mercantile vesselto an extent that resulted in saving a quantity of fuelthe value of which on a single trip would go a considerableway towards meeting the extra first cost of the gyro-compass.Bearing these facts in mind the author fromthe outset endeavoured not only to dispense withmathematics but to avoid introducing anything exceptthe most familiar physical principles and conceptions, forhis object was to explain the mode of action of the gyrovi-compassfor the benefit primarily of the navigatingofficer—naval and mercantile. If some readers shouldfind the treatment in places unduly prolix, the authortrusts they will exercise leniency and regard the fault asbeing caused by the author’s unwillingness to take anyrisks in expounding a subject, no part of which can beunderstood incompletely without grave hurt to theunderstanding of the whole.

T. W. C.

London, May, 1920.


vii

CONTENTS

CHAP.   PAGE
I. Introduction 1
II. Elementary Gyroscopic Phenomena 4
III. The Gyroscope and the Rotation of the Earth 15
IV. Damping the Vibrations of the Gyro-Compass 29
V. The Damping System of the Anschütz (1910) Compass 42
VI. The Damping System of the Sperry Compass 52
VII. The Damping System of the Brown Compass 59
VIII. The Latitude Error 65
IX. The North Steaming Error 71
X. The Ballistic Deflection 81
XI. The Quadrantal Error 91
XII. The Elimination of the Quadrantal Error 107
XIII. Centrifugal Forces during Quadrantal Rolling 130
XIV. The Anschütz (1910) Compass 138
XV. The Sperry Compass 142
XVI. The Brown Compass 148
XVII. The Anschütz (1912) Compass 154
  Index 165

ix

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

FIG.   PAGE
1. Model gyroscope with three degrees of freedom 4
2. Model gyroscope with three degrees of freedom 7
3. Model gyroscope, frictional transmission of turning moment 9
4. Model gyroscope, one degree of freedom lost 11
5. Model gyroscope, second degree of freedom lost 12
6. Model gyroscope, lost degrees of freedom restored 13
7. Elementary gyroscope at equator 15
8. Gyroscopic clock 16
9. Elementary gyro-compass 18
10. Elementary compass at equator 20
11. Elementary compass at 55 deg. N. Lat. 24
12. Compass at equator and near North Pole 26
13. Pendulum and compass 32
14. Damped and undamped vibrations 35
15. Damped pendulum 37
16. Air-blast damping system of Anschütz (1910) compass 43
17. Free and damped motion of axle 49
18. Damping curve from Anschütz (1910) compass 50
19. Damping system of Sperry compass 53
20. Action of excentric pin in Sperry compass 55
21. Action of excentric pin in Sperry compass 57
22. Gyro-pendulum with axle tilted 60
23. Damping system of Brown compass 62
24. The north steaming error at 0 deg. and 60 deg. N. 72
25. Sperry correction mechanism for latitude and north steaming errors 76
26. Ballistic force on compass when ship’s speed changes 83x
27. Ballistic force on compass when ship’s speed changes 84
28. Ballistic deflection 86
29. Effect of rolling on due north course 93
30. Effect of rolling on due west course 94
31. External gimbal mounting 97
32. Effect of rolling on a due north course (simple mounting) 98
33. Effect of rolling on a due north course (external gimbal mounting) 99
34. Ship rolling on N.W. course 101
35. Sperry compass on N.W. course 108
36. Sperry ballistic gyro 111
37. Stabilised excentric pin (Sperry compass) 112
38. Diagram of Brown compass 113
39. Oil control bottles (Brown compass) 115
40. Brown compass on west course 117
41. Diagram of Anschütz (1912) compass 121
42. Plans of gyros (Anschütz compass) 122
43. Centrifugal forces on a pendulum 131
44. The Anschütz (1910) compass 139
45. The Sperry compass removed from binnacle 143
46. The Sperry compass 144
47. The Brown compass removed from binnacle 148
48. The Brown compass removed from binnacle 149
49. The Brown compass 150
50. Plan
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