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Oliver Cromwell and the Rule of the Puritans in England

Oliver Cromwell and the Rule of the Puritans in England
Title: Oliver Cromwell and the Rule of the Puritans in England
Release Date: 2018-06-04
Type book: Text
Copyright Status: Public domain in the USA.
Date added: 27 March 2019
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Transcriber’s Note:

The cover image was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain.

Heroes of the Nations

A Series of Biographical Studiespresenting the lives and workof certain representative historicalcharacters, about whomhave gathered the traditionsof the nations to which theybelong, and who have, in themajority of instances, beenaccepted as types of the severalnational ideals.

FOR FULL LIST SEE END OF THIS VOLUME
Heroes of the Nations
EDITED BY
Evelyn Abbott, M.A.
FELLOW OF BALLIOL COLLEGE, OXFORD
FACTA DUCIS VIVENT, OPEROSAQUE GLORIA RERUM.—OVID, IN LIVIAM 265.
THE HERO’S DEEDS AND HARD-WON FAME SHALL LIVE.
OLIVER CROMWELL

OLIVER CROMWELL.
(From a painting by an unknown artist, in the National Portrait Gallery.)

OLIVER CROMWELL
AND THE RULE OF THE PURITANS IN ENGLAND

BY
CHARLES FIRTH, M.A.
BALLIOL COLLEGE, OXFORD
G. P. PUTNAM’S SONS
NEW YORK AND LONDON
The Knickerbocker Press
Copyright, 1900
BY
G. P. PUTNAM’S SONS
The Knickerbocker Press, New York

v

PREFACE

This Life of Cromwell is in part based on anarticle contributed by the author to the Dictionaryof National Biography in 1888, butembodies the result of later researches, and of recentlydiscovered documents such as the ClarkePapers. The battle plans have been specially drawnfor this volume by Mr. B. V. Darbishire, and in twocases differ considerably from those generally acceptedas correct. The scheme of this series doesnot permit a discussion of the reasons why thesealterations have been made, but the evidence concerningthe battles in question has been carefullyexamined, and any divergence from received accountsis intentional. The reader who wishes tosee this subject discussed at length is referred to astudy of the battle of Marston Moor printed inVolume XII. of the Transactions of the RoyalHistorical Society (new series), and to a similarpaper on Dunbar which will appear in Volume XIV.

The quotations from Cromwell’s letters or speechesare, where necessary, freely abridged.

C. H. F.
Oxford, Feb. 6, 1900.
vii

CONTENTS

CHAPTER I
PAGE
EARLY LIFE, 1599–1629 1
 
 
CHAPTER II
 
THE PREPARATION FOR THE CIVIL WAR, 1629–1640 19
 
 
CHAPTER III
 
THE LONG PARLIAMENT, 1640–1642 47
 
 
CHAPTER IV
 
THE FIRST CAMPAIGN, 1642 69
 
 
CHAPTER V
 
CROMWELL IN THE EASTERN ASSOCIATION, 1643 86
 
 
CHAPTER VI
 
MARSTON MOOR, 1644 102
 
 
CHAPTER VII
 
NASEBY AND LANGPORT, 1645–1646 121
 
 
CHAPTER VIII
 
PRESBYTERIANS AND INDEPENDENTS, 1642–1647 142
 
 
viiiCHAPTER IX
 
ARMY AND PARLIAMENT, 1647–1648 164
 
 
CHAPTER X
 
THE SECOND CIVIL WAR, 1648 193
 
 
CHAPTER XI
 
CROMWELL AND THE KING’S EXECUTION, 1648–1649 207
 
 
CHAPTER XII
 
THE REPUBLIC AND ITS ENEMIES, 1649 232
 
 
CHAPTER XIII
 
IRELAND, 1649–1650 255
 
 
CHAPTER XIV
 
CROMWELL AND SCOTLAND, 1650–1651 276
 
 
CHAPTER XV
 
THE END OF THE LONG PARLIAMENT, 1651–1653 300
 
 
CHAPTER XVI
 
THE FOUNDATION OF THE PROTECTORATE, 1653 326
 
 
CHAPTER XVII
 
CROMWELL’S DOMESTIC POLICY, 1654–1658 346
 
 
CHAPTER XVIII
 
CROMWELL’S FOREIGN POLICY, 1654–1658 370
 
 
ixCHAPTER XIX
 
CROMWELL’S COLONIAL POLICY 390
 
 
CHAPTER XX
 
CROMWELL AND HIS PARLIAMENTS 409
 
 
CHAPTER XXI
 
THE DEATH OF CROMWELL, 1658–1660 433
 
 
CHAPTER XXII
 
CROMWELL AND HIS FAMILY 453
 
 
CHAPTER XXIII
 
EPILOGUE 467
 
INDEX 487
xi

ILLUSTRATIONS

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PAGE
 
OLIVER CROMWELL Frontispiece
 
[From a painting by an unknown artist, in the National Portrait Gallery.]
 
 
THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL, HUNTINGTON 6
 
[From Pike’s Oliver Cromwell.]
 
 
ELIZABETH, THE WIFE OF OLIVER CROMWELL 8
 
[From a drawing by W. Bond.]
 
 
CROMWELL’S HOUSE, ELY 28
 
[From a photograph.]
 
 
ST. IVES AND THE RIVER OUSE, AND MEDIÆVAL CHAPEL ON THE BRIDGE 36
 
[From Pike’s Oliver Cromwell.]
 
 
JOHN PYM 48
 
[From a miniature by Cooper.]
 
 
ROBERT DEVEREUX, EARL OF ESSEX 78
 
[From Devereux’s Lives of the Devereux.]
 
 
PRINCE RUPERT, K.G. 80
 
[From a painting by Sir Peter Lely, in the National Portrait Gallery.]
 
 
JOHN HAMPDEN 88
 
[From Nugent’s Life of Hampden.]
 
 
xiiMAP OF THE EASTERN ASSOCIATION 90
 
 
EDWARD MONTAGUE, EARL OF MANCHESTER 100
 
[From Birch’s Heads of Illustrious Persons.]
 
 
CROMWELL CREST 101
 
 
MAP OF THE BATTLE OF MARSTON MOOR 106
 
 
SIR THOMAS FAIRFAX 122
 
[From the painting by Gerard Zoust.]
 
 
MAP OF THE BATTLE OF NASEBY 128
 
 
HENRY IRETON 168
 
[From a painting by Robert Walker, in the National Portrait Gallery.]
 
 
PEMBROKE CASTLE 194
 
[From a photograph.]
 
 
MAP OF THE PRESTON CAMPAIGN 198
 
 
CHARLES I. 228
 
[From an old engraving.]
 
 
SIR HENRY VANE (THE YOUNGER) 246
 
[From a painting by William Dobson, in the National Portrait Gallery.]
 
 
MAP OF IRELAND, TO ILLUSTRATE CROMWELL’S CAMPAIGN 256
 
 
THE SEAL OF THE “TRIERS” 278
 
 
THE DUNBAR MEDAL, HEAD OF CROMWELL, BY THOMAS SIMON