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The Negro in Chicago_ A Study of Race Relations and a Race Riot

The Negro in Chicago_ A Study of Race Relations and a Race Riot
Title: The Negro in Chicago_ A Study of Race Relations and a Race Riot
Release Date: 2018-06-17
Type book: Text
Copyright Status: Public domain in the USA.
Date added: 27 March 2019
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Transcriber's Note:

Inconsistent hyphenation and spelling in the original document have been preserved. Obvious typographical errors have been corrected.

The following variant spellings are noted, but were left unchanged:

  • instalment and installment
  • whisky and whiskey
  • instal and install
  • pretense and pretence

The footnotes for markers 41 and 73 are missing.

Several table totals are incorrect. Two numbers were corrected,

  • Table XIV: Late Entering, Doolittle, Negro corrected to 190.
  • Total white students, Smyth: 57

All other numbers were left as in the original.

THE NEGRO IN CHICAGO

THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS


THE BAKER & TAYLOR COMPANY
NEW YORK


THE CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
LONDON


THE MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KAISHA
TOKYO, OSAKA, KYOTO, FUKUOKA, SENDAI


THE MISSION BOOK COMPANYSHANGHAI

CHICAGO RACE RIOT—BEGINNING OF THE RIOT
WHITES AND NEGROES LEAVING TWENTY-NINTH STREET BEACH AFTER THE DROWNING OF EUGENE WILLIAMS

THE NEGRO IN CHICAGO

A STUDY OF RACE RELATIONS
AND A RACE RIOT

BY
THE CHICAGO COMMISSION ON
RACE RELATIONS

THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS
CHICAGO ILLINOIS

Copyright 1922 By
The University of Chicago


All Rights Reserved


Published September 1922
Second Impression January 1923
Third Impression March 1923

Composed and Printed By
The University of Chicago Press
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE
List of Illustrationsix
List of Mapsx
Foreword by Honorable Frank O. Lowdenxiii
Introductionxv
The Problemxxiii
Chapter I. The Chicago Riot, July 27-August 2, 19191-52
Background of the Riot2
The Beginning of the Riot4
Chronological Story of the Riot5
Factors Influencing Growth of the Riot9
Gangs and "Athletic Clubs"11
Types of Clashes17
Crowds and Mobs22
Rumor25
Police33
Militia40
Deputy Sheriffs43
Restoration of Order43
Aftermath of the Riot46
Outstanding Features of the Riot48
Chapter II. Other Outbreaks in Illinois53-78
Clashes in Chicago preceding the Riot of 191953
Racial Outbreaks in Waukegan, May 31 and June 2, 192057
The "Abyssinian" Affair, June 20, 192059
The Barrett Murder, September 20, 192064
The Springfield Riot, August 14-15, 190867
East St. Louis Riots, May 28, and July 2, 191771
Chapter III. The Migration of Negroes from the South79-105
Economic Causes of the Migration80
Sentimental Causes of the Migration84
Beginning and Spread of Migration86
The Arrival in Chicago93
Adjustments to Chicago Life94
Migrants in Chicago97
Efforts to Check Migration103
Chapter IV. The Negro Population of Chicago106-151
Distribution and Density106
Neighborhoods of Negro Residence108vi
Adjusted Neighborhoods108
Non-adjusted Neighborhoods113
Neighborhoods of Organized Opposition115
Bombings122
Trend of the Negro Population135
Outlying Neighborhoods136
The Negro Community139
Commercial and Industrial Enterprises140
Organizations for Social Intercourse141
Religious Organizations142
Social and Civic Agencies146
Medical Institutions150
Chapter V. The Negro Housing Problem152-230
General Living Conditions152
Why Negroes Move154
Room Crowding156
Rents and Lodgers162
How Negro Families Live165
A Group of Family Histories170
Physical Aspects of Negro Housing184
Neighborhood Improvement Associations192
Efforts of Social Agencies193
Negroes and Property Depreciation194
Financial Aspects of Negro Housing215
Negroes as Home Owners216
Financial Resources of Negroes227
Chapter VI. Racial Contacts231-326
Legal Status of Negroes in Illinois232
Discrimination in Public Schools234
Contacts in Chicago Public Schools238
Physical Equipment of Schools241
Retardation in Elementary Schools256
Contacts in Recreation271
Contacts in Transportation297
Contacts in Other Relations309
"Black and Tan" Resorts323
Cultural Contacts325
Contacts in Co-operative Efforts for Race Betterment326
Chapter VII. Crime and Vicious Environment327-356
Criminal Statistics328
The Negro in the Courts332
Bureau of Identification335
Probation and Parole335
Institutional Inquiry338vii
Negro Crime and Environment341
Views of Authorities on Crime among Negroes345
Chapter VIII. The Negro in Industry357-435
Employment Opportunities and Conditions357
Increase in Negro Labor since 1915362
Classification of Negro Workers364
Wages of Negro Workers365
Women Employees in Industrial Establishments367
Railroad Workers369
Domestic Workers370
Employers' Experience with Negro Labor372
Negro Women in Industry378
Industries Excluding the Negro391
Relations of White and Colored Workers393
Future of the Negro in Chicago Industries400
Organized Labor and the Negro Worker403
Policy of the American Federation of Labor and Other Federations405
Unions Admitting Negroes to White Locals412
Unions Admitting Negroes to Separate Co-ordinate Locals417
Unions Excluding Negroes from Membership420
The Negro and Strikes430
Attitude and Opinions of Labor Leaders432
Chapter IX. Public Opinion in Race Relations436-519
A. OPINIONS OF WHITES AND NEGROES
Beliefs Concerning Negroes437
Primary Beliefs438
Secondary Beliefs443
Background of Prevailing Beliefs Concerning Negroes445
Types of Sentiments and Attitudes451
The Emotional Background451
Abstract Justice454
Traditional Southern Background456
Group Sentiments456
Attitudes Determined by Contacts457
Self-Analysis by Fifteen White Citizens459
Public Opinion as Expressed by Negroes475
Race Problems478
Abyssinians480
A Negro and a Mob481
Defensive Policies484
Race Consciousness487
Opinions of Fifteen Negroes on Definite Racial Problems493
Are Race Relations Improving?494
Opinions on Solution495
Social Adjustments502viii
Negro Problems505
Defensive Philosophy508
Segregation and Racial Solidarity509
Opinion-making514
Chapter X. Public Opinion in Race Relations520-594
B. INSTRUMENTS OF OPINION-MAKING
The Press520
General Survey of Chicago Newspapers523
Intensive Study of Chicago Newspapers531
Newspaper Policy Regarding Negro News547
The Negro Press556
Classification of Articles557
Negro Newspaper Policy563
Rumor568
Myths577
Propaganda587
Conclusions594
Chapter XI. Summary of the Report and Recommendations of the Commission595-651
The Chicago Riot595
The Migration of Negroes from the South602
The Negro Population of Chicago605
Racial Contacts613
Crime and Vicious Environment621
The Negro in Chicago Industries623
Public Opinion in Race Relations629
Opinions of Whites and Negroes629
Factors in the Making of Public Opinion634
The Recommendations of the Commission640
Appendix652
Biographical Data of Members of the Commission652
The Staff of the Commission653
Epitome of Facts in Riot Deaths655
Table Showing Number of Persons Injured in Chicago Riot by Date and by Race667
Index669

ix

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

FACING
PAGE
Whites and Negroes Leaving Twenty-ninth Street Beachiii
Crowds Armed with Bricks Searching for a Negro12
Whites Stoning Negro to Death12
The Arrival of the Police12
Scenes from Fire in Immigrant Neighborhood16, 22, 28
Negroes Leaving Wrecked House in Riot Zone16
Wrecked House of a Negro Family in Riot Zone28
Negroes and Whites Leaving the Stock Yards28
Negroes Being Escorted to Safety Zone34
Searching Negroes for Arms in Police Station34
Negroes Buying Provisions Brought into Their Neighborhood40
The Militia and Negroes on Friendly Terms40
Negro Stock Yards Workers Receiving Wages44
Buying Ice from Freight Car44
Milk Was Distributed for the Babies48
Provisions Supplied by the Red Cross48
Propaganda Literature Used by "Abyssinians"60
After the "Abyssinian Murders"64
Typical Plantation Homes in the South80
Negro Family Just Arrived in Chicago92
Negro Church in the South92
Racial Contacts among Children108
A Savings Bank in the Negro Residence Area112
Children at Work in a Community Garden112
Damage Done by a Bomb128
A Negro Choral Society136
Olivet Baptist Church140
St. Mark's M.E. Church140
Trinity M.E. Church and Community House146
South Park M.E. Church146
Pilgrim Baptist Church146
The Chicago Urban League Building150
The South Side Community Service Building150
Homes Owned by Negroes on South Park Avenue188x
An Abandoned Residence in the Prairie Avenue Block188
Homes Occupied and in Part Owned by Negroes194
Homes Occupied by Negroes on Forest Avenue202
Rear View of Houses Occupied by Negroes on Federal Street202
Moseley School242
Farren School248
Wendell Phillips High School252
A Typical School Yard Playground in a White Neighborhood276
Beutner Playground280
Field House Equipment at Beutner Playground280
Negro Athletic Team in City-Wide Meet280
Friendly Rivalry280
Armour Square Recreation Center286
Beutner Playground286
A Negro Amateur Baseball Team292
Negro Women and Girls Employed in a Lamp-Shade Factory378
Negro Women Employed on Power Machines380
Negro Women and Girls in a Large Hat-making Concern384
Officers of the Railway Men's Benevolent Industrial Association410

xi

LIST OF MAPS

FACING
PAGE
The Chicago Riot8
Distribution of Negro Population, 1910106
Distribution of Negro Population, 1920110
Proportion of Negroes to Total Population, 1910116
Proportion of Negroes to Total Population, 1920120
Homes Bombed124
Negro Churches144
Social Agencies148
Homes of White and Negro Employees154
Types of Negro Housing184
A Changing Neighborhood212
Recreation Facilities272
Transportation Contacts, Morning 7:00 to 9:00300
Transportation Contacts, Evening 4:00 to 6:00300
Houses of Prostitution, 1916342
Houses of Prostitution, 1918342
Resorts346
Industrial Plants360

xiii

FOREWORD

There is no domestic problem in America which has given thoughtful menmore concern than the problem of the relations between

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