Pumps and Hydraulics - Part Two
The cover image was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain.
IN TWO PARTS.
Author of “Drawing and Design,” etc.
HAND PUMPS; POWER PUMPS; PARTS OF PUMPS; ELECTRICALLY DRIVENPUMPS; STEAM PUMPS, SINGLE, DUPLEX AND COMPOUND; PUMPINGENGINES, HIGH DUTY AND TRIPLE EXPANSION; THE STEAM FIREENGINE; UNDERWRITERS’ PUMPS; MINING PUMPS; AIR ANDVACUUM PUMPS; COMPRESSORS; CENTRIFUGAL AND ROTARYPUMPS; THE PULSOMETER; JET PUMPS AND THE INJECTOR;UTILITIES AND ACCESSORIES; VALVE SETTING; MANAGEMENT;CALCULATIONS, RULES AND TABLES.
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS; GLOSSARY OF PUMP TERMS; HISTORICALINTRODUCTION, WITH ILLUSTRATIONS; THE ELEMENTS OF HYDRO-MECHANICS,HYDROSTATICS AND PNEUMATICS; GRAVITY AND FRICTION;HYDRAULIC MEMORANDA; LAWS GOVERNING FLUIDS; WATERPRESSURE MACHINES; PUMPS AS HYDRAULIC MACHINES, ETC.
THEO. AUDEL & COMPANY
72 FIFTH AVE.,
NEW YORK, U.S.A.
7, IMPERIAL ARCADE,
LUDGATE CIRCUS, E.C.,
Copyrighted, 1905, by
THEO. AUDEL & CO., NEW YORK.
Entered at Stationers Hall, London, England.
Protected by International Copyright in Great Britain and all
her Colonies, and, under the provisions of the
Berne Convention, in
Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, Tunis,
Hayti, Luxembourg, Monaco, Montinegro
Printed in the United States.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
The divisions of Part Two are represented by the following headings:each subject is fully treated and illustrated on the pages shown:
Introduction to Part Two
The Air Pump
Air and Vacuum Pumps
The Air Lift Pump
The Steam Fire Engine
Ammonia or Acid Pumps
The Screw Pump
Rotary and Centrifugal Pumps
Injectors and Ejectors
Pump Speed Governors
Utilities and Attachments
Tools, Valves and Piping
Pipes, Joints and Fittings
Tables and Data
Ready Reference Index to Part Two
The owner of a great tannery had once an improvement inmaking leather proposed to him by a foreman, but the merchantcould not comprehend it even with the most earnestverbal explanation. As a last resort he said, “put it in writingso that I can study it out.” This was done and the changeafter an examination of the paper was made as advised. Soin these volumes much important information is written andprinted that it may be “studied out.”
The author believes the following features of his workadapt it to the purpose for which it was designed:
1. It contains no more than can be mastered by the averageengineer and those associated with him, such as millwrights,machinists, superintendents of motor power, electric stations,water works, etc.
2. It is thoroughly systematized. The order and developmentof subjects is thought to be logical, and the arrangementof topics especially adapted to the needs of those who aspireto do the best service in their every day responsibilities.
3. The work is written in accordance with modern theoriesand practice; no exertion has been spared in the attempt tomake it fairly represent the latest state of the science ofhydraulics and its adaptation to the needs of modern mechanicaladvancement, i.e., in the line of practical hydraulics.
Note.—The preface is almost invariably made after the book itself isfinished, for an author never knows with much exactness whither his researcheswill lead him. The book he begins is not always the book hefinished; this is especially the case with books relating to modern sciencesand industry. As an instance of this, it may be told that at the commencementof this work it was generally agreed that the easy “lift” of thecentrifugal pump was some sixty or eighty feet, and not much more, butthe appropriate section relating to centrifugal pumps has reached a lift oftwo thousand feet had been practically assured by recent discoveries. Thisimportant difference demanded a change in the writing although—as it happened—notin the printing. This, to explain why here, the author givesgenerous praise to others who have assisted in the long task of makingthese volumes.
4. It has been made by “men who know for men whocare,” for the whole circle of the sciences consists of principlesdeduced from the discoveries of different individuals, in differentages, thrown into common stock; this is especially so of thescience of hydraulics; thus it may be truthfully owned thatthe work contains the gathered wisdom of the ages, utilizedwherever the author has found that it would increase the usefulnessof the volumes.
5. It is a work of reference minutely indexed. We arewarned by Prof. Karl Pearson that “education can only develope;it cannot create. If a man has not inherited ability tolearn, education cannot make him learn,” but in a well indexedbook, simply and plainly written, both classes referred to areequally benefited.
There came the moment, once upon a time, when theauthor of this book, in his eager pursuit of knowledge, askedone question too much, to which he received the “gruff”answer:
“Look ahere, I don’t propose to make a dictionary ofmyself.”
This was a painful retort from a man already under largeobligations to the questioner, but it had its reason in beingspoken. There are things in the way of a man’s own craft thathe most unwillingly imparts to anyone else.
It is not thus with this work; nothing has been withheldthat would make it plain and helpful to one in need of thespecial line of information aimed to be conveyed in its make-up.
In making acknowledgment for favors received the authorfirst remembers Mr. Alberto H. Caffee who arranged in behalfof the L. Middleditch Press for the issue of the work. Mr.Caffee’s name appears in the dedication, with that of the bravesoldier and accomplished gentleman Maj. Abram B. Garner.
The latter is one to whom “Jove has assigned a wise, extensive, allconsiderate mind.” The author is proud to call him friend and toacknowledge the benefit received in kindly advice relating to his productions.
Mr. Harry Harrison’s skill is shown in the “lay out” ortypographical arrangement of the work and Mr. Henry J. Harmshas contributed his careful supervision to each page of thebook as it has gone through the press.
Lewis F. Lyne, Mechanical Engineer, has, amid his otherresponsible and active duties “passed upon” each page of theentire two volumes.
Mr. Lyne, it may be said, was one of the founders of the AmericanSociety of M. E.; he was also the first mechanical engineer on theeditorial staff of the American Machinist in its early days, and contributedas editor and stockholder to its success. In his youth Mr. Lynewas apprentice in the machine shop of the Penn. R. R. and received hispapers for full and faithful service.
Having been commodore of the Pavonia Yacht Club he has papersboth as U. S. pilot and also as a marine engineer. He performed practicalservice both as locomotive fireman and was later superintendent of theJersey City Electric Light Co. for a period of six and a half years.
Moreover Mr. Lyne was assistant master mechanic of the Delaware,Lackawanna & Western R. R. (M. & E. Div.) for seven years and hadcharge of establishing their new shops at Kingsland, N. J. Few menhave had so long and honorable a record as Lewis Frederick Lyne.
Credit is due also to Mr. Edward F. Stevens, assistant atthe Yale University library, New Haven, Conn., for a carefulreading of the two volumes for clerical errors, punctuation, etc.Mr. Stevens is a graduate of Colby University and a ripescholar; moreover after leaving college he has had some twelveor more years experience in business and editing with a mechanicalbook publishing house widely known throughout Englandand the U. S.—a rare combination of useful experience.
The final revision of the two volumes has been made byone of the brightest young engineers in New York City, nowconsulting engineer and attorney at Patent Law with offices inthe Flat Iron Building, corner of Twenty-third St. and FifthAvenue—Mr. Edward Van Winkle.
He is associate member of the Am. Soc. M. E. and associate memberof the Canadian Soc. of C. E. He was a Student in The StevensInstitute of Technology, and graduated from Columbia University inthe City of New York with the degree E. E.
These names should assure confidence in the contents ofthe work, which has been some years in preparation, and withnothing spared to make it trustworthy.
“Kicking down” a well in the early days. A hole was dug inthe rock and cased with a wooden tube eight or ten inches square.In this way the tools, suspended from a horizontal elastic hickorypole, which in turn was fastened to a stake, were worked over anupright piece as a fulcrum. The tools were worked up and downin the hole, as shown in the picture.
THE AIR PUMP
“There is this remarkable difference between bodies in a fluid andbodies in a solid form, namely, that every particle of a fluid is perfectlyindependent of every other particle. They do not cohere inmasses, like the particles of a solid, nor do they repel one another, asis the case with the particles composing a gas. They can mingle amongeach other with the least degree of friction, and, when they pressdown upon one another by virtue of their own weight, the downwardpressure is communicated in all directions, causing a pressure upwards,sideways, and in every possible manner. Herein the particlesof a fluid differ from the particles of a solid, even when reduced tothe most impalpable powder; and it is this which constitutes fluidity,namely, the power of transmitting pressure in every direction, andthat, too, with the least degree of friction. The particles which composea fluid must be very much smaller than the finest grain of animpalpable powder.”—Richard Green Parker, A. M.
Pneumatics treats of the mechanical properties and effects ofair and similar fluids; these are called elastic fluids and gases,or aëriform fluids.
Hydro-pneumatics. This is a compound word formed fromtwo Greek words signifying water and air; in its primarymeaning it conveys the idea of thecombined action of water and air orgas.