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The Animal Parasites of Man

The Animal Parasites of Man
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Title: The Animal Parasites of Man
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THE ANIMAL PARASITES OF MAN

BY
H. B. FANTHAM, M.A.Cantab., D.Sc.Lond.
Lecturer on Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine; Sectional Editor inProtozoology, “Tropical Diseases Bulletin,” London, etc.
J. W. W. STEPHENS, M.D.Cantab., D.P.H.
Sir Alfred Jones Professor of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool University, etc.
AND
F. V. THEOBALD, M.A.Cantab., F.E.S., Hon. F.R.H.S.
Professor of Agricultural Zoology, London University; Vice-Principal and Zoologist of theSouth-eastern Agricultural College; Mary Kingsley Medallist; Grande Médaille GeoffroySt. Hilaire, Soc. Nat. d’Acclim. de France, etc.
PARTLY ADAPTED FROM
Dr. Max Braun’s “Die Tierischen Parasiten des Menschen” (4th Edition, 1908) and anAppendix by Dr. Otto Seifert.
NEW YORK
WILLIAM WOOD AND COMPANY
MCMXX.

PREFACE.

The English edition of Braun’s “Die Tierischen Parasiten desMenschen,” produced in 1906, being out of print, the publishersdecided to issue another edition based on the translation of Braun’sfourth German edition, which appeared in 1908, to which had beenadded an appendix, by Dr. Otto Seifert on Treatment, etc.

When the work was considered with a view to a new edition,it was found that a vast amount of new matter had to be incorporated,numerous alterations essential for bringing it up to date were necessitated,and many omissions were inevitable. The result is that parts ofthe book have been rewritten, and, apart from early historical references,the work of Braun has disappeared. This is more particularly the casewith the Protozoa section of the present work. The numerous additions,due to the great output of scientific literature and other delays inpublication, have led to the book being somewhat less homogeneousthan we desired, and have necessitated the use of appendices toallow of the presentation of new facts only recently ascertained.Many new illustrations have been added or substituted for older, lessdetailed ones. Some of these new figures were drawn specially forthis book.

The first section, on the Protozoa, has been written by Dr. Fantham,there being little of the original text left except parts of the historicalportions, and thus the section on Protozoa must be considered asnew. The second section, on Worms (except the Acanthocephala,Gordiidæ and Hirudinea), has been remodelled by Professor Stephensto such an extent that this, too, must not be looked upon as atranslation of Braun’s book. With regard to the Arthropoda,much remains as in the last English edition, but some new matteradded by Braun in his fourth German edition is included, and muchnew matter by Mr. Theobald has been incorporated. As regardsthe Appendix by Dr. Seifert, the first section has been remodelled,but the sections on the Helminthes and the Arthropoda are practicallytranslations of the original.

The authors desire to express their thanks to Miss A. Porter, D.Sc.,J. P. Sharples, Esq., B.A., M.R.C.S., and H. F. Carter, Esq., F.E.S.,for valuable help. They also wish to thank the authors, editors, andpublishers of several manuals and journals for their courtesy inallowing the reproduction of certain of their illustrations. In thisconnection mention must be made more particularly of ProfessorCastellani, Dr. Chalmers, Professor Doflein, Dr. Leiper, the lateProfessor Minchin, Professor Nuttall, Dr. Wenyon, Mr. Edw. Arnold,Messrs. Baillière, Tindall and Cox, Messrs. Black, Messrs. Cassell,Dr. Gustav Fischer, Messrs. Heinemann, the Cambridge UniversityPress, the Editors of the Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology,the Editors of the Journal of Experimental Medicine, and the Editorof the Tropical Diseases Bulletin.

H. B. F.
J. W. W. S.
F. V. T.

December, 1915.


CONTENTS.

PAGE
PREFACEiii
ERRATAxxxii
ON PARASITES IN GENERAL
Occasional and Permanent Parasitism
Entozoa, Endoparasites, Helminthes, Turbellaria
Hermaphroditism
Fertility of Parasites
Transmigrations
Commensals, Mutualists
Incidental and Pseudo-parasites
The Influence of Parasites on the Host
Origin of Parasites
Derivation of Parasites
Change of Host
Literature

THE ANIMAL PARASITES OF MAN
A. Protozoa
Classification of the Protozoa.
Class  I. Sarcodina
Order. Amœbina
Foraminifera
Heliozoa
Radiolaria
Class II. Mastigophora
III. Sporozoa
Sub-class 1. Telosporidia
Order. Gregarinida
Coccidiidea
Hæmosporidia
Sub-class 2. Neosporidia
Order. Myxosporidia
Microsporidia
Sarcosporidia
Haplosporidia
Class IV. Infusoria
 V. Suctoria
Class I. Sarcodina, Bütschli, 1882
Order. Amœbina, Ehrenberg
A. Human Intestinal Amœbæ
Entamœba coli, Lösch, 1875, emend. Schaudinn, 1903
Entamœba histolytica, Schaudinn, 1903
Entamœba tetragena, Viereck, 1907
Noc’s Entamœba, 1909
Entamœba buccalis, Prowazek, 1904
Entamœba undulans, Castellani, 1905
Entamœba kartulisi, Doflein, 1901
Amœba gingivalis, A. buccalis, A. dentalis
Genus. Paramœba, Schaudinn, 1896
Paramœba (Craigia) hominis, Craig, 1906
B. Amœbæ from other Organs
Entamœba pulmonalis, Artault, 1898
Amœba urogenitalis, Baelz, 1883
Amœba miurai, Ijima, 1898
Appendix: “Rhizopods in Poliomyelitis Acuta”
Order. Foraminifera, d’Orbigny
Sub-order. Monothalamia (Testaceous Amœbæ)
Genus. Chlamydophrys, Cienkowski, 1876
Chlamydophrys enchelys, Ehrenberg
Leydenia gemmipara, Schaudinn, 1896
Class II. Mastigophora, Diesing
Sub-class. Flagellata, Cohn emend. Bütschli
Order. Polymastigina, Blochmann
Genus. Trichomonas, Donné, 1837
Trichomonas vaginalis, Donné
Trichomonas intestinalis, R. Leuckart, 1879 = Trichomonas hominis, Davaine, 1854
Genus. Tetramitus, Perty, 1852
Tetramitus mesnili, Wenyon, 1910
Genus. Lamblia, R. Blanchard, 1888
Lamblia intestinalis, Lambl, 1859
Order. Protomonadina, Blochmann
Family. Cercomonadidæ, Kent emend. Bütschli
Genus. Cercomonas, Dujardin emend. Bütschli
Cercomonas hominis, Davaine, 1854
Monas pyophila, R. Blanchard, 1895
Family. Bodonidæ, Bütschli
Genus. Prowazekia, Hartmann and Chagas, 1910
Prowazekia urinaria, Hassall, 1859
Prowazekia asiatica, Castellani and Chalmers, 1910
Prowazekia javanensis, Flu, 1912
Prowazekia cruzi, Hartmann and Chagas, 1910
Prowazekia weinbergi, Mathis and Léger, 1910
Prowazekia parva, Nägler, 1910
Family. Trypanosomidæ, Doflein
Genus. Trypanosoma, Gruby, 1843
Historical
General
Morphology
Trypanosoma gambiense, Dutton, 1902
Trypanosoma nigeriense, Macfie, 1913
Trypanosoma rhodesiense, Stephens and Fantham, 1910
General Note on Trypanosomes with Posterior Nuclei
Trypanosoma cruzi, Chagas, 1909
Trypanosoma lewisi, Kent, 1881
Trypanosoma brucei, Plimmer and Bradford, 1899
Trypanosoma evansi, Steel, 1885
Trypanosoma equinum, Voges, 1901
Trypanosoma equiperdum, Doflein, 1901
Trypanosoma theileri, Bruce, 1902
Trypanosoma hippicum, Darling, 1910
Endotrypanum schaudinni, Mesnil and Brimont, 1908
Trypanosoma boylei, Lafont, 1912
Monomorphic Trypanosomes
Trypanosoma vivax, Ziemann, 1905
Trypanosoma capræ, Kleine, 1910100
Trypanosoma congolense, Broden, 1904100
Trypanosoma simiæ, Bruce, 1912100
Trypanosoma uniforme, Bruce, 1910101
General Note on Development of Trypanosomes in Glossina101
Adaptation of Trypanosomes101
Genus. Herpetomonas, Saville Kent, 1881102
Genus. Crithidia, Léger, 1902, emend. Patton, 1908104
Genus. Leishmania, Ross, 1903104
Leishmania donovani, Laveran and Mesnil, 1903105
Leishmania tropica, Wright, 1903107
Leishmania infantum, Nicolle, 1908109
Genus. Histoplasma, Darling, 1906112
Genus. Toxoplasma, Nicolle and Manceaux, 1908112
The Spirochætes114
The Spirochætes of the Blood116
Spirochæta duttoni, Novy and Knapp, 1906116
Spirochæta gallinarum, Stephens and Christophers, 1905 (= Spirochæta marchouxi, Nuttall, 1905)119
Spirochæta recurrentis, Lebert, 1874120
Spirochæta rossii, Nuttall, 1908122
Spirochæta novyi, Schellack, 1907122
Spirochæta carteri, Mackie and Manson, 1907122
Spirochæta berbera, Sergent and Foley, 1910122
Other Human Spirochætes122
Some Animal Spirochætes122
Treponemata124
Treponema pallidum, Schaudinn, 1905124
Treponema pertenue, Castellani, 1905127
Class III. Sporozoa, Leuckart, 1879128
Sub-class. Telosporidia, Schaudinn129
Order. Gregarinida, Aimé Schneider emend. Doflein129
Order. Coccidiidea135
Genus. Eimeria, Aimé Schneider, 1875142
Eimeria avium, Silvestrini and Rivolta142
Eimeria stiedæ, Lindemann, 1865145
(a) Human Hepatic Coccidiosis148
(b) Human Intestinal Coccidiosis148
(c) Doubtful Cases149
Genus. Isospora, Aimé Schneider, 1881149
Isospora bigemina, Stiles, 1891149
Doubtful Species150
Order. Hæmosporidia, Danilewsky emend. Schaudinn151
The Malarial Parasites of Man155
Development of the Malarial Parasites of Man159
The Species of the Malarial Parasites of Man164
Plasmodium vivax, Grassi and Feletti, 1890164
Plasmodium malariæ, Laveran166
Laverania malariæ, Grassi and Feletti, 1890 (= Plasmodium falciparum, Welch, 1897)167
Plasmodium relictum, Sergent, 1907 (in birds)170
Cultivation of Malarial Parasites170
Differential Characters of the Human Malarial Parasites171
Family. Piroplasmidæ, França, 1909172
Genus. Babesia, Starcovici, 1893174
Genus. Theileria, Bettencourt, França and Borges, 1907178
Theileria parva, Theiler, 1903178
Theileria mutans, Theiler, 1907180
Genus. Anaplasma, Theiler, 1910180
Genus. Paraplasma, Seidelin, 1911180
Sub-class. Neosporidia, Schaudinn181
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