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Byways in British Archaeology

Byways in British Archaeology
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Title: Byways in British Archaeology
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{i}

BYWAYS
IN
BRITISH ARCHAEOLOGY

{ii}

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
London: FETTER·LANE, E.C.
C. F. CLAY, Manager

Edinburgh: 100, Princes Street
Berlin: A. ASHER AND CO.
Leipzig: F. A. BROCKHAUS
New York: G. P. PUTNAM’S SONS
Bombay and Calcutta: MACMILLAN AND CO., Ltd.

All rights reserved
{iii}

BYWAYS
IN
BRITISH ARCHAEOLOGY

BY
WALTER JOHNSON, F.G.S.
AUTHOR OF FOLK-MEMORY, ETC.

Cambridge:
at the University Press
1912
{iv}
Cambridge:
PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A.
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS
{v}

PREFACE

The following chapters, though superficially presenting the appearanceof disconnected essays, really possess a strong bond of continuity.Running through the whole, implied, where not actually expressed, willbe found an insistence on the principle which, in a former work, Iventured to call folk-memory. This folk-memory—unconsciously, for themost part, but sometimes with open ceremony—keeps alive those popularbeliefs and practices which are individually called survivals. With someof these legacies from the past the present volume deals.

To a large extent the studies are connected with the church andchurchyard. The sections which treat of pagan sites, orientation, andburial customs, embody the results of observations relating to somehundreds of buildings in all parts of England and Wales. The chapters on“The Folk-Lore of the Cardinal Points” and “The Labour’d Ox” partially,at least, break virgin soil. In “The Churchyard Yew” are set downinferences drawn from many years of investigation, the literary side ofwhich has been rendered difficult by the existence, in various modernworks, of unfounded statements and hypothetical references. Theremainder of the book treats of somewhat more familiar themes, though itis hoped that fresh outlooks are suggested.

Since some of the matters here brought forward have been, and indeedstill are, provocative of keen, and even heated controversy, toanticipate agreement with all the conclusions would be sheer folly.Nevertheless, it may be claimed that the facts collected have beencarefully sifted, the references conscientiously verified, and theopposing theories honestly presented.{vi}

To the multitude of friends who have rendered true service either bysupplying information or in preparing the illustrations, most gratefulthanks are expressed. Acknowledgements of all such help are recorded indue place, but special recognition must be made of the expert assistanceof Mr Sydney Harrowing, who has borne the chief burden in illustratingthe volume. To Miss Nora Mansell thanks are tendered for the drawing ofGumfreston church (Fig. 26). Fig. 93 is copied from a sketch prepared byMr C. G. Carter, of Louth. Messrs Frank Cowley and F. J. Bennett,F.G.S., have kindly permitted the reproduction of an original painting(Fig. 87). Mr Worthington G. Smith, F.L.S., has courteously allowedFigs. 59 and 60 to be taken from Man, the Primeval Savage; Fig. 80 iscopied by the consent of Professor R. S. Lull; and Figs. 4, 22 and 88appear by the kindness of Mr David Sydenham, the Rev. Percival Saben,M.A., and the British Archaeological Association respectively. Dr W.Heneage Legge and Messrs G. Allen and Sons have granted the use of theblock for Fig. 92, while Figs. 84 and 85 were photographed from ahorseshoe lent by the Rev. Hastings M. Neville, B.A., of Ford,Northumberland.

Many of the photographs were taken by Mr Edward Yates, who allowed freechoice to be made from his large collection, but the following ladiesand gentlemen have also assisted: Mr O. F. Bailey, Mr Alexander Barbour,Mr J. G. V. Dawson, Mr E. W. Filkins, Miss Truda Hutchinson, Mrs W.Johnson, Mr A. L. Leach, F.G.S., Mr Douglas Leighton, Mr P. McIntyre,F.G.S., Mr Llewellyn Treacher, F.G.S., Mr W. C. Walker, Mr E. C. Youens,Mr G. W. Young, F.G.S., F.Z.S., and Mr W. Plomer Young. Permission touse photographs has also been granted by Mr James Cheetham of Lewes,Messrs Thos. B. Latchmore and Son, Hitchin, Mr W. Wiseman, Corfe Castle,the Grimsby Telegraph Company, and the Watford Engraving Company.

W. J.

January, 1912{vii}

CONTENTS

 PAGE
I.Churches on Pagan Sites1
II.Churches on Pagan Sites (continued)51
III.The Secular Uses of the Church Fabric101
IV.The Secular Uses of the Church Fabric (continued)145
V.The Orientation of Churches205
VI.The Orientation of Graves243
VII.Survivals in Burial Customs268
VIII.The Folk-Lore of the Cardinal Points324
IX.The Churchyard Yew360
X.The Cult of the Horse408
XI.The Labour’d Ox452
XII.Retrospect488
 Addenda495
 Index:A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,O,P,Q,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,Z498

{ix}{viii}

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

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FIG. PAGE
1.Roman altar, St Swithin’s, Lincoln. (Phot. Mr W. Plomer Young)6
2.Roman tesserae, St Saviour’s Cathedral, Southwark. (Phot. Mr W. Plomer Young)8
3.Interior of Brixworth church, Northampton. (Phot. Mr O. F. Bailey)10
4.Ruins of Knowlton church, Dorset. (From Warne’s Ancient Dorset, by permission)14
5.Pharos, Dover Castle. (Bloxam’s Gothic Eccles. Architecture)19
6.Ancient foundations at Lyminge church, Kent. (Phot. Mr Edward Yates)21
7.Portion of wall, St Martin’s church, Canterbury. (Phot. Mr Edward Yates)22
8.The Agglestone, Studland, Dorset. (Phot. Mr W. C. Walker)35
9.Ruins of Maplescombe church, Kent. (Phot. Mr E. W. Filkins)39
10.Sketch plan of Maplescombe ruins. (Mr Sydney Harrowing)39
11.Rudstone church and monolith. (Mr Sydney Harrowing)44
12.The Cove, Stanton Drew, Somerset. (Mr Sydney Harrowing)47
13.Corfe Castle, as it appeared in 1643. (Phot. from an old print, Mr W. Wiseman, Corfe Castle)53
14.Ruins of Corfe Castle. (Phot. Mr Edward Yates)53
15.The Mount, Great Canfield, Essex. (Mr Sydney Harrowing)54
16.Chapel, Goodrich Castle, Herefordshire. (Phot. Mr Edward Yates)58
17.Pirton church and Toot Hill, Hertfordshire, from the South-East. (Phot. Messrs Thomas B. Latchmore and Son, Hitchin)60
18.Pirton church and Toot Hill, Hertfordshire, from the South-West. (Phot. Messrs Thomas B. Latchmore and Son, Hitchin)61
19.Toot Hill, Little Coates, Lincolnshire. (Phot. the Grimsby Telegraph Company)72
20.Mound, Berwick churchyard, Sussex. (Phot. Mrs W. Johnson)75
21.Chislehurst church and mound, as it appeared c. A.D. 1800. (From D. Lyson’s Environs of London, 1795-1800)77
22.Urns, found near Alphamstone church, Essex. (By the courtesy of the Rev. Percival Saben, M.A.)85
{x}23.Tower of Bishopstone church, Sussex. (Phot. Mrs W. Johnson)102
24.Tower of Scartho church, Lincolnshire. (Phot. the Grimsby Telegraph Company)109
25.Oystermouth church, Glamorganshire. (From Archaeologia Cambrensis, N.S. I. 1850)112
26.Gumfreston church, Pembrokeshire. (Miss Nora Mansell)114
27.Corner tower, Nunney Castle, Somerset. (Phot. Mr W. C. Walker)116
28.Round tower, Devenish, Fermanagh. (Mr Sydney Harrowing)119
29.Rushmere church, Suffolk. (Phot. Mr Edward Yates)124
30.Tower of Piddinghoe church, Sussex. (Mr Sydney Harrowing)125
31.East Dean church, Sussex. (Phot. Mrs W. Johnson)126
32.St Aldhelm’s chapel, St Alban’s Head, Dorset. (Phot. Mr Edward Yates)128
33.Cheriton church, Kent. (Phot. Mr Edward Yates)129
34.St Michael’s Mount, Cornwall. (Phot. Mr Edward Yates)130
35.Distant view of St Martha’s chapel, near Guildford. (Phot. Mr Douglas Leighton)132
36.Squint, Leatherhead church, Surrey. (Phot. Mr Edward Yates)152
37.Porch of Wotton church, Surrey. (Phot. Mr G. W. Young, F.G.S.)153
38.Dial stone, Bishopstone church, Sussex. (Phot. Mr Edward Yates)163
39.Enlargement of Bishopstone dial. (Mr Sydney Harrowing)164
40.Parish stocks, Shalford, Surrey. (Mr Sydney Harrowing)166
41.Church chest and dog tongs, Llanelian, Denbigh. (Phot. Mr Edward Yates)169
42.Church chest, Rainham, Essex. (Phot. Mr Edward Yates)169
43.Fourteenth century barn, Bradford-on-Avon. (Phot. Mr W. C. Walker)171
44.Interior of barn, Bradford-on-Avon. (Mr Sydney Harrowing)172
45.Mediaeval Clergy House, Alfriston, Sussex. (Phot. Mr Edward Yates)176
46.Mediaeval Parsonage House, West Dean, Sussex. (Phot. Mr Edward Yates)177
47.Church House, or Guild Hall, Lincoln. (Phot. Mr W. Plomer Young)178
48.Morris dancers (Strutt’s Book of Sports). (Mr Sydney Harrowing)184
49.Dovecot, Berwick Court, Sussex. (Phot. Mr Edward Yates)189
50.“Canute’s knee-bone,” Canewdon church, Essex. (Watford Engraving Company)200
51.Tyndall’s grave in Haslemere churchyard, Surrey. (Phot. Miss Truda Hutchinson)265
52.Round barrow, Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire. (Phot. Mr Llewellyn Treacher, F.G.S.)266
53.Inscribed cross, Sancreed, Cornwall. (Phot. Mr Edward Yates)269
{xi}54.Mediaeval stone coffins. (Mr Sydney Harrowing)272
55.Roman and Bronze Age coffins. (From T. Wright’s The Celt, the Roman and the Saxon.) (Mr Sydney Harrowing)273
56.Roman coffin of lead. (T. Wright)273
57.Grave celt, Puy-de-Dôme. (Phot. Mr J. G. V. Dawson)298
58.Necklaces found in British barrows. (Mr Sydney Harrowing)300
59.Skeletons of woman and child, Dunstable Downs. (By the kind permission of Mr Worthington G. Smith, F.L.S.)304
60.Fossil sponges (Porosphaera) artificially modified for the purpose of suspension. (By the kind permission of Mr Worthington G. Smith, F.L.S.)306
61.The contents of a Roman sepulchral chest. (From T. Wright’s The Celt, the Roman, and the Saxon)314
62.Churchyard cross, Bakewell, Derbyshire. (Phot. Mr W. Plomer Young)329
63.Capitals, Seaford church, Sussex. (Mr Sydney Harrowing)330
64.Low side window, Tatsfield church, Surrey. (Phot. Mr Edward Yates)331