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The Architecture of Provence and the Riviera

The Architecture of Provence and the Riviera
Title: The Architecture of Provence and the Riviera
Release Date: 2018-11-14
Type book: Text
Copyright Status: Public domain in the USA.
Date added: 27 March 2019
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HAVING been called on, a few years ago, to make frequent journeysbetween this country and the Riviera, the author was greatly impressedwith the extraordinary variety and abundance of the ancientarchitectural monuments of Provence. This country was found to containnot only special styles of Mediæval Art peculiar to itself, but likewisean epitome of all the styles which have prevailed in Southern Europefrom the time of the Romans. It proved to be especially prolific inexamples of Roman Art from the age of Augustus till the fall of theEmpire. It also comprises a valuable series of buildings illustrative ofthe transition from Classic to Mediæval times. These are succeeded by arich and florid development of Romanesque, accompanied by a plain stylewhich existed parallel with it—both being peculiar to this locality.The remains of the Castellated Architecture are also especially grandand well preserved; while the picturesque towns, monasteries, and otherstructures of the Riviera have a peculiar charm and attraction of theirown.{vi}

These Architectural treasures being comparatively unknown, it isbelieved that a popular work bringing their leading features into noticewill be not unacceptable to all lovers of architecture as well as to thenumerous visitors to the south of France, and may be of use in directingattention to a most interesting department which has hitherto been to agreat extent overlooked.

A proper history of Provence has unfortunately not yet been written. Ashort account, derived from various sources, of the state of the countryfrom early times and during the Middle Ages is therefore prefixed to thedescription of the Monuments, so as to explain the historical conditionsunder which the Architecture of Provence was developed, and to show itsconnection with that of other countries and times.

The author has to acknowledge the valuable aid he has received from theexcellent notes on the Architecture of the country by Prosper Mérimée inhis “Voyage dans les Midi de la France” (1835),—a work which, even atthe early date of its publication, anticipated many of the results morerecently arrived at.

The comprehensive and invaluable “Dictionnaire Raisonné” ofViollet-le-Duc has also been of much service, and is frequently referredto.

Most of the illustrations are from drawings and measurements made by theauthor on the spot, and these generally bear his initials. But wherethought advisable for fuller illustration some of the drawings are takenfrom photo{vii}graphs; from Henry Révoil’s beautiful work on the“Architecture Romane du Midi de la France” (1873); and a few from othersources as mentioned in the text.

Special thanks are due to Professor Baldwin Brown for his kindness inrevising the proof sheets, and for the valuable suggestions he has made.

Edinburgh, October 1888.


5,10top,“two thousand”“three thousand.”
27,1no (
36,7bottom, for “Carée”“Carrée.”
128, Title, Fig. 41,FETES”TETES.”
147, line 7 frombottom,“apartmnts”“apartments.”
194, Title of Fig. 97,ST CÉSAIREST TROPHIME.”



I. Introductory.

The Architecture of South of France comparatively little known, 1;contrast of North and South in climate, buildings, &c., 3;Provence a very ancient and independent State, 4; and sceneof important historical events, 5.

II. Early History of Provence, and its Conditionduring the Middle Ages.

Colonised by Phœnicians, 1100 B.C.—Greek culture introduced, 7;occupied by the Romans about 100 B.C., 8; became their favouriteprovince, 9; overrun by Visigoths in fourth century, 10; Romanand Greek colonies were in cities, and the revived governmentalso municipal, 11; the Church the chief instrument of organisedgovernment, 12; monasteries established, 13; anarchic conditionfrom fifth to eighth century, 14; invasion of Saracens, 15;attempt to establish a “Holy Roman Empire,” 16; revivalunder Charlemagne, 18; growth of the monasteries, Cluny, 20;Citeaux, 22; the Crusades, 23; effects of the above on Architecture,24.

III. Political History of Provence.

Fall of the Empire in fifth century. Kings of Provence from sixthto tenth century, 26; Kingdom of Arles, 27; Raymond Bérangerbecomes Count of Provence, 11, 12; independence of citiesattacked, 27; Albigensian crusade, 28; in 1245 Charles ofAnjou becomes Count of Provence, 29; Queen Joan; 1480, KingRené dies and Provence becomes part of France, 30.

IV. Description of Classic Buildings.

The Architecture of Provence naturally divided into a Classic and aMediæval period—which best considered separately, 32; the{x}Roman period, 33; Paris, Autun, capricious preservation ofClassic monuments, 34; Lyons, Vienne, 35; Temple of Augustusand Livia, remains of Forum, 37; the pyramid, 38; Viennerestored, 39; Orange, 40; the theatre, 42; triumphal arch, 45;other triumphal arches at Cavaillon, 47; St Remy, 48; mausoleumat St Remy, 50; Arles, history, 51; amphitheatre, 52;mode of protecting spectators in ditto, 54; obelisk, Placed’Hommes, Tour de la Trouille, 56; Alyscamps, 57; sculpturein museum, 59; Nimes, history, 64; amphitheatre, 65; MaisonCarrée, 68; statue of Venus, 71; Nymphæum, 72; Tour Magne,73; Roman gates, 74; Pont du Gard, 76; the “Camargue” andthe “Crau,” 77; St Chamas, Roman bridge at, 77; Vernégue,temple at, 78; paucity of classic remains at Marseilles andNarbonne, 79; Pomponiana, 80; Le Luc, 80; Fréjus, history,80; gate of Gaul, amphitheatre, theatre, aqueduct, 82; ViaAurelia, 83; aqueduct of Clausonne, Antibes, Vence, 84;Cemenelum, 86; Turbia, 87.

V. Transition Period.

Transition from Classic to Mediæval Architecture, 90; principles ofGreco-Italian design, trabeate as opposed to the arch, 91; gradualintroduction and development of the latter, 92; trabeate featuresdropped, 93; early Christian architecture a continuation of thatof Rome, 94; the basilica, 95; the baptistery, 96; San Vitale, 96;Byzantine edifices, the dome, 97; St Mark’s, Syrian churches,98; early churches in the West—Romanesque varieties, 99;attempts to vault—San Miniato, 100; Notre Dame du Pré, LeMans; form of vaulting in Provence, 102; in Aquitaine, 103;St Front, Perigueux, 104; the dome and single nave characteristicof the South, 105; varieties of style, influence of Romanremains, 105; powerful in Provence, 106; shewn in campaniles,baptisteries, and especially sculpture, 107; supposed Byzantineinfluence—the pointed arch, 107; used for simplicity of construction,108; Burgundian style, imitative of nature, 109; thesevere style of the Cistertians, 110; the second style of Provençalart; the two periods described, 111; growth of lay element,112; traditional ecclesiastical forms abandoned and new naturalforms adopted, 113; Northern Gothic developed, 114; Gothicapplicable to all requirements, 115; domestic and castellatedArchitecture, 116; origin and growth of the latter, 117; peculiaritiesin the South, 118; recapitulation, 119; place of ProvençalArchitecture, 120.

VI. Description of Mediæval Buildings.

Description of Mediæval buildings—Lyons, the Ainay, 121; the{xi}cathedral, 122; Vienne, St André-le-Bas, and St Pierre, 124;cathedral, 126; ancient houses, 127; Valence, Maison des Fêtes,127; castle of Crussol, monastery of Cruas, 128; church ofCruas, 132; Montélimar, Viviers—commencement of Provençalexamples, St Paul-trois-châteaux, 134; St Restitut, Pont StEsprit, 136; Courthézon, Avignon, 137; history, 138; NotreDame des Doms, 139; imitation of Roman work, 141; palaceof the Popes, 143; history, 144; description of, 145; walls oftown, 148; gates, 151; Pont St Bénezet, 151; tower of Villeneuve,154; castle of St André, 155; gatehouse, 156; curtains, 161;guard rooms on walls, 162; church of Villeneuve, 163; churchesof Avignon, the Beffroi, abbey of St Ruf, Priory of St Veran, 164;Vaison, 165; Carpentras, Venasque, Pernes, Le Thor, Cavaillon,167; Le clocher de Molléges, 168; Tarascon, history, SteMarthe, 168; castle, 170; houses, gateway, 172; Beaucairecastle, 173; triangular keep, 176; oratory, 178; Les Baux, 179;the town—the bas-reliefs, 180; account of the family, 181; StGabriel, 182; Arles, St Trophime, 183; includes examples ofall periods of Provençal Architecture—the Cistertian nave, 184;the west portal, 187; the cloisters, 188; the Alyscamps, StHonorat, 191; prosperity of Arles after union to France—Renaissancepalaces, 192; Mont-Majour, Hermitage, 194; church, 196;cloister, 199; chapel of Ste Croix, 199; the keep, 203; St Gilles,Abbey church, 204; interrupted by Albigensian crusade, 205;portal, 206; sources of Provençal art, 210; Les Saintes Maries,212; Marseilles, St Victor, 213; Aix-en-Provence, St Sauveur, 217;cloisters, 219; “Les Villes Mortes du Golfe de Lyon,” 220; Montpellier,Maguelonne, 222; Béziers, 222; St Nazaire, 224; Fountain,227; house in town, 228; Puisalicon, St Pierre de Reddes, StMartin de Londres, 229; Narbonne, history, 230; cathedral,231; its fortifications, 232; Archbishop’s palace, 233; the keep,234; St Paul, the Lagunes, the Pyrenees, Perpignan, 235; thecastellet, cathedral, 236; citadel, &c., Elne, 239; cathedral, 240;the unfinished chevet, the campanile, 241; the cloisters, 244;Carcassonne, 244; history, 245; towers of the Visigoths, 246;the porte Narbonnaise—the barbican and its defences, 252;the walls and towers, 254; St Nazaire, 257; Aigues Mortes, 260;Canal, 261; walls and gateways, 264; Porte de Nimes, 266;Tour de Constance, 268; Tour Carbonnière, 269.

Eastwards from Marseilles—Toulon, 270; Hyères, 271; castle,272; St Paul, 273; examples of Cistertian style, 274; Cannet,275; abbey of Thoronet, 276; the cloisters, 278; remarkabledetails, 280; chapter house, 281; St Maximin, 282; Fréjus,cathedral and Bishop’s palace, 281; fortified, 289; baptistery,291; “Pantheon” at Riez, 293; the cloisters, Fréjus, 296; Brass{xii}lamp, 298; doorways in town, 299; district of Les Maures, howto visit, 300; St Tropez, fish market, 301; Grimaud, castle, 302;La Garde Freinet, St Raphaël, the Esterelle mountains, 304;Napoule, 305; St Peyré, Mont St Cassien, 307; Cannes, 308;history, Tour du Chevalier, 310; St Anne, 314; Notre Damed’Espérance, 317; Iles de Lérins, 319; St Honorat, cloisters, 320;Ste Trinité, 320; St Sauveur, 323; castle of St Honorat, 324; styleof lower cloister, 330; style of upper cloister, 334; additions, 340;Ste Marguérite, 343; Vallauris, 344; Le Cannet, 347; Mougins,Notre Dame des Vie, 348; Auribeau, 350; Grasse, 351; cathedral,353; keep tower, 354; Renaissance, 357; l’Oratoire, 357; StCésaire, 359; château de Tournon, 363; Montauroux and Callian,364; Le Bar, 366; Gourdon, 367; Tourettes, 369; Antibes, 371;two keep towers, 373; Cagnes, castle, 376; castle of Villeneuve-Loubet,378; history, 381; tower of La Trinité, 382; Biot, 387;St Paul-du-Var, 392; approach to, 393; Architecture of shopsand houses, 395; staircase, 397; gateway, 398; church, 400;remarkable keep-tower, 401; Vence, 407; cathedral, 409; keeptowers, 411; column, 413; commandery of St Martin, 414;destruction of the

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