Remarks on the Uses of some of the Bazaar Medicines and Common Medical Plants of India With a full index of diseases, indicating their treatment by these and other agents procurable throughout India
Apparent typographical errors have been corrected. Variations in the useof hyphens and of accents have been retained.
The symbol for "minim" (an obselete measure of capacity) is used once.It may not display properly in all applications.
Part II comprises a synopsis or index of diseases and theirtreatment. Their names have been bolded, on the same lines as the list ofmedecines and medical plants in Part I.
REMARKS ON THE USES
OF SOME OF THE
COMMON MEDICAL PLANTS OF INDIA
WITH A FULL INDEX OF DISEASES, INDICATING THEIR
TREATMENT BY THESE AND OTHER AGENTS
PROCURABLE THROUGHOUT INDIA
TO WHICH ARE ADDED
DIRECTIONS FOR TREATMENT IN CASES OF
DROWNING, SNAKE-BITES, &c.
EDWARD JOHN WARING, C.I.E., M.D.
FELLOW OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF LONDON
SURGEON-MAJOR (RETIRED) HER MAJESTY'S INDIAN ARMY
EDITOR OF THE PHARMACOPŒIA OF INDIA, ETC.
J. & A. CHURCHILL
7 GREAT MARLBOROUGH STREET
PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION.
Owing to the favour in which this work is still beingheld by the public in India, as proved by the entiresale of the Fourth Edition, I have taken upon myselfto issue this, the Fifth Edition, with the generousassistance of my late father's friend, J. E. T.Aitchison, M.D., C.I.E., to whom I owe a great debtof gratitude for the time and trouble and valuablespecial knowledge he has so liberally bestowed on thework.
The only important changes that occur in thisEdition are the introduction of a couple of diagramsof a clinical thermometer, with a few notes to guidethe non-professional in its use; some alterations inthe text, where subjects that had been issued in theFourth Edition as notes to the text are now incorporatedin the text itself; and lastly, Dr. Aitchisonhas more fully entered upon his treatment of small-poxwith carbolised oil.
PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION.
That this little work should have reached a FourthEdition may be taken as pretty clear indication thatit has met a recognised want amongst our Indianfellow-subjects, for whose instruction and guidance itwas originally issued. To render it worthy of continuedfavour, and to make it additionally useful, hasbeen my anxious endeavour.
Of any merit which this edition may be found topossess over the preceding one, a very large portionis due to Dr. J. E. T. Aitchison, C.I.E., Surgeon-Majorin H.M. Indian (Bengal) Medical Service, who,with a liberality that demands my warmest thanks,placed at my disposal an elaborate MS. commentaryon the Third Edition, embodying his own professionalexperience in India (extending over many years), andsupplying the vernacular names of the various drugsin the Punjábí, Kashmírí, and Leh languages. Ofthis document it need hardly be said I have availedmyself largely, my only regret being that I could notinsert it in extenso, but to have done this would greatlyhave exceeded the prescribed limits of the work. Asit is, Dr. Aitchison has laid me under a vast obligation,which I am only too happy to have this opportunityof acknowledging.
Five new articles have been added to the List ofDrugs: two at the suggestion of Dr. Aitchison;namely, (1) Sugar, and (2) Kerosene Oil, which latter,owing to its extensive use for lighting purposes duringthe past few years, is now obtainable in nearly everybazaar in the country; the other three being the(3) Cinchona Febrifuge (Quinetum), (4) Petroleum,and (5) Rock Salt. The various ways in which thesearticles may be utilised in the treatment of diseasewill be found under their respective headings in the"Addenda," p. 171, et seq.
In addition to these there have been introducednotices of Indian Hemp (Gunjah) smoking in thetreatment of Tetanus, of the antiscorbutic propertiesof Ámchur (dried Mangoes), the lactifuge powers ofSambac flowers (Jasminum Sambac), the emmenagoguevirtues of Til or Jinjili Seeds (Sesamum Indicum), andother points unnoticed in previous editions. Thetherapeutic applications of Water are enlarged upon;as also are those of Carbolic Acid, especially in thetreatment of Leprosy. The Sick Dietary has likewisebeen extended. Amongst the new matter has beenintroduced a section (pp. 268-272) detailing the "Precautionsto be taken by persons residing in snake-infestedlocalities."
By these and other additions (occupying upwardsof thirty pages of new matter), and by the revisionand modification of other passages, it is confidentlyhoped that the practical value of the work will befound to be materially increased. Indeed, it has beenmy earnest endeavour throughout to render this littlevolume as useful as possible, and if through its instrumentalitysuffering humanity be in any degreebenefited my highest aspiration will be attained.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
Fourteen years have elapsed since this work, in anelementary form, was first issued for the use of theDistrict Vaccinators of Travancore, whose sphere ofaction was far removed from regular medical aid. Itwas originally published in English and Tamil onopposite pages; subsequently it was reprinted inTamil alone by the London Missionary Society's Pressat Nagercoil, for the use of the catechists and othersconnected with that Mission. In 1868, a Malyalimtranslation, by Dresser Ramswammy Rajoo, was issuedby the Travancore Government. From reports receivedfrom various quarters, there is reason tobelieve that the work has enjoyed a wide circulationamongst the people of Travancore and Tinnevelly,and that it has exercised a considerable influence onthe practice of the native doctors of those districts.
Were I wise, I ought, perhaps, to rest satisfiedwith these results, which far exceed what wereoriginally contemplated; but recent observation hasconvinced me that there are other classes scatteredthrough our great Indian possessions to whom awork of the kind would prove most acceptable, bypointing out to them the agents—either purchasablein the bazaars at an almost nominal price, or procurableat the cost of collection, from the road-sides,waste places, or gardens in the immediate neighbourhoodof almost every out-station—by means of which,with the exercise of ordinary intelligence, they mayoften be enabled to relieve the sufferings of thoseamongst whom their lot has been cast.
And at the head of these classes stand the Missionaries,whose stations, for the most part, are toofar removed from the busy haunts of men to allow oftheir calling in regular medical aid in cases of sickness,and who are consequently thrown, at such times, verymuch on their own resources. Many of the missionarieshave under their charge large establishmentsof catechists, pupils, &c.; and it cannot be otherwisethan highly desirable that they should be put inpossession of any information regarding the availablemeans of relieving the sufferings, and treating thediseases, of those placed under their care. This is notthe place to enter into a disquisition on missionarywork, but I cannot refrain from expressing my firmconviction that the more the principle of MedicalMissions—making Religion and Medicine go hand inhand—is carried out, the greater, humanly speaking,will be the success of missionary efforts. Howmany a door for the admission of Gospel truth,which would otherwise be shut, would be opened, andthat readily, to one who, with "the glad tidings ofgreat joy" in the one hand, would bring in the otherthe means of relieving physical suffering and curingbodily disease! The highest distinction that I wouldclaim for this little work is, that it may constitute, asfar as India is concerned, a Missionaries' Medical VadeMecum.
Next on the rôle comes a large army of Europeanand Anglo-Indian officials, whether within the magiccircle of "the Service" or beyond its pale, who areattached to the Public Works, Forests, Railway,Telegraph, or other Departments, or employed in Tea,Coffee, or Cotton plantations, in commercial pursuits,&c., many of them married men, with families and alarge number of dependants, the majority at distant"up-country stations," miles away from medical aid;how important for persons under such circumstancesto possess a knowledge of the means lying (literallyso in many instances) at their very feet, by whichpain and suffering may be alleviated, and, perhaps, avaluable life saved.
Lastly, but by no means least, either in point ofnumbers or importance, comes the daily increasingarray of educated Natives, who, as a class, readily availthemselves of every scrap of knowledge drawn fromtrustworthy European sources, which tends to throwlight on the products and resources of their nativeland. Whilst, on the one hand, I am perfectly preparedto admit that much of the knowledge I possessof the properties and uses of Indian drugs has beenderived from Native sources, I think I may, on theother hand, without presumption, claim the credit ofrepaying the debt with interest, furnishing in returna considerable amount of information on the uses ofeven the same drugs, of which the Natives themselveshad previously no idea. It is to this class that Iventure to think this little work will prove mostuseful and acceptable.
In addition to the above, I venture to hope thatto even duly qualified Medical Officers, especially atup-country stations, a work like the present mayprove serviceable on emergencies, e.g., a failure of thesupply of European drugs, &c., by showing them whatresources they have at command in the bazaars or intheir immediate neighbourhood, by means of whichmany a gap may be stopped till more efficient remediesare available.
In undertaking a Second Edition of this work, Ihave been further influenced by a desire to renderits scope and contents more complete. With moreextended knowledge on my part, drawn partly fromsubsequent personal experience in the use of Indiandrugs, and partly from the Reports received fromMedical Officers during the preparation of the Pharmacopœiaof India, I realised how imperfect theoriginal work was; and feeling myself in a positionto add much information which would tend to increaseits usefulness, I determined upon issuing anotheredition. The whole work has accordingly been rewrittenand greatly enlarged.
It was evidently quite out of the question, in asmall work like the present, to include the host ofmedicines included under the general headings of"Bazaar Medicines" and "Common Medical Plants ofIndia," but from them I have made a selection ofabout 80, comprising—1 Antacid, 8 Astringents,3 Antispasmodics, 2 Antiscorbutics, 6 Antiperiodics,5 Demulcents and Emollients, 4 Diaphoretics orSudorifics, 4 Diuretics, 3 Expectorants, 2 Emmenagogues,4 Emetics, 6 Purgatives, 3 Narcotics orSedatives, 5 Refrigerants, 9 Stomachics or Carminatives,7 Bitter Tonics, 5 Alterative Tonics or Alteratives,2 Metallic Tonics, 7 Local and 4 GeneralStimulants, 2 Vesicants, or Blistering Agents, 6 Vermifuges,and 17 Miscellaneous Articles, not includedin the above classes.
In making this selection I have been guided by thefollowing principles:—1. By the safety of the drug;hence Arsenic, Aconite Root (Bish), Nux Vomica,Indian Hemp, and some other powerful medicineshave been omitted, as it was felt to be inadvisable,in a work like the present, to introduce agents which,in the hands of unprofessional persons, might domore harm than good if employed in unsuitablecases. Where, however, a powerful drug, e.g., Opium,has been admitted, minute directions as to itsemployment have been given. 2. By the acknowledgedutility or efficacy of the drug as proved byEuropean experience. 3. By the drug possessing agenerally well-known, recognised native name. 4. Byits wide distribution and easy procurability in allparts, and in all the bazaars of India generally. It ishoped that by the addition of the native names anddescriptions of the drugs (which were omitted in theFirst Edition), even a new-comer will have littledifficulty in obtaining and recognising any particulararticle he may require.
With this native "Apparatus Medicaminum" verymuch may be accomplished under ordinary circumstances,in the way of relieving suffering and curingdisease; but it must be admitted that there are certainarticles included under the class "European Medicines"for which the Indian bazaars supply no adequate substitutes.I have therefore (in Appendix E) added alist of nine drugs which it appears desirable should bekept in store. They are—1. Sulphate of Quinine;2. Ipecacuanha; 3. Smyrna or Turkey Opium; 4.Calomel; 5. Acetate of Lead; 6. Santonin; 7. LiquorAmmoniæ; 8. Blistering Fluid; and 9. Carbolic Acid.
Attention is particularly directed to the Synopsis orIndex of Diseases in Part II.; it is not pretendedthat the modes of treatment therein detailed are thebest which could be adopted; the object has ratherbeen to show how much good may be effected bythe simple means at command at almost every "upcountrystation" throughout India;