History of Greece, Volume 03 (of 12)
HISTORY OF GREECE.
GEORGE GROTE, Esq.
REPRINTED FROM THE SECOND LONDON EDITION.
HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS
329 AND 331 PEARL STREET
CONTINUATION OF HISTORICAL GREECE.
CORINTH, SIKYON, AND MEGARA. — AGE OF THE GRECIANDESPOTS.
Early commerce and enterprise of the Corinthians. —Oligarchy of the Bacchiadæ. — Early condition of Megara. — Earlycondition of Sikyôn. — Rise of the despots. — Earliest changes ofgovernment in Greece. — Peculiarity of Sparta. — Discontinuance ofkingship in Greece generally. — Comparison with the Middle Agesof Europe. — Anti-monarchical sentiment of Greece — Mr. Mitford.— Causes which led to the growth of that sentiment. — Change tooligarchical government. — Such change indicates an advance in theGreek mind. — Dissatisfaction with the oligarchies — modes by whichthe despots acquired power. — Examples. — Tendency towards a betterorganized citizenship. — Character and working of the despots. — Thedemagogue-despot of the earlier times compared with the demagogueof later times. — Contrast between the despot and the early heroicking. — Position of the despot. — Good government impossible to him.— Conflict between oligarchy and despotism preceded that betweenoligarchy and democracy. — Early oligarchies included a multiplicityof different sections and associations. — Government of the Geomori— a close order of present or past proprietors. — Classes of thepeople. — Military force of the early oligarchies consisted ofcavalry. — Rise of the heavy-armed infantry and of the free militarymarine — both unfavorable to oligarchy. — Dorian states — Dorianand non-Dorian inhabitants. — Dynasty of despots at Sikyôn — theOrthagoridæ. — Violent proceedings of Kleisthenês. — Classes of theSikyonian population. — Fall of the Orthagoridæ — state of Sikyônafter it. — The Sikyonian despots not put down by Sparta. — Despotsat Corinth — Kypselus. — Periander. — Great power of Corinth underPeriander. — Fall of the Kypselid dynasty. — Megara — Theagenês thedespot. — Disturbed government at Megara — The poet Theognis. —Analogy of Corinth, Sikyôn, and Megara.
IONIC PORTION OF HELLAS. — ATHENS BEFORE SOLON.
History of Athens before Drako — only a list ofnames. — No king after Kodrus. — Life archons. — Decennial archons.— Annual archons, nine in number. — Archonship of Kreôn. B. C.683 — commencement of Attic chronology. — Obscurity ofthe civil condition of Attica before Solon. — Alleged duodecimaldivision of Attica in early times. — Four Ionic tribes — Geleontes,Hoplêtes, Ægikoreis, Argadeis. — These names are not names ofcastes or professions. — Component portions of the four tribes. —The Trittys and the Naukrary. — The Phratry and the Gens. — Whatconstituted the gens or gentile communion. — Artificial enlargementof the primitive family association. Ideas of worship and ancestrycoalesce. — Belief in a common divine ancestor. — This ancestryfabulous, yet still accredited. — Analogies from other nations. —Roman and Grecian gentes. — Rights and obligations of the gentileand phratric brethren. — The gens and phratry after the revolutionof Kleisthenês became extra-political. — Many distinct politicalcommunities originally in Athens. — Theseus. — Long continuance ofthe cantonal feeling. — What demes were originally independent ofAthens. — Eleusis. — Eupatridæ, Geômori, and Demiurgi. — Eupatridæoriginally held all political power. — Senate of Areopagus. — Thenine archons — their functions. — Drako and his laws. — Differenttribunals for homicide at Athens. — Regulations of Drako about theEphetæ. — Local superstitions at Athens about trial of homicide. —Attempted usurpation by Kylôn. — His failure, and massacre of hispartisans by order of the Alkmæônids. — Trial and condemnation of theAlkmæônids. — Pestilence and suffering at Athens. — Mystic sects andbrotherhoods in the sixth century B. C. — Epimenidêsof Krete. — Epimenidês visits and purifies Athens. — His life andcharacter. — Contrast of his age with that of Plato.
SOLONIAN LAWS AND CONSTITUTION.
Life, character, and poems of Solon. — War betweenAthens and Megara about Salamis. — Acquisition of Salamis by Athens.— Settlement of the dispute by Spartan arbitration in favor ofAthens. — State of Athens immediately before the legislation ofSolon. — Internal dissension — misery of the poorer population. —Slavery of the debtors — law of debtor and creditor. — Injusticeand rapacity of the rich. — General mutiny, and necessity fora large reform. — Solon made archon, and invested with fullpowers of legislation. — He refuses to make himself despot. — Hisseisachtheia, or relief-law for the poorer debtors. — Debasingof the money standard. — General popularity of the measure afterpartial dissatisfaction. — Different statements afterwards as tothe nature and extent of the seisachtheia. — Necessity of themeasure — mischievous contracts to which the previous law had givenrise. — Solon’s law finally settled the question — no subsequentcomplaint as to private debts — respect for[p. vii] contracts unbroken under the democracy.— Distinction made in an early society between the principal andthe interest of a loan — interest disapproved of in toto. — Thisopinion was retained by the philosophers after it had ceased toprevail in the community generally. — Solonian seisachtheia neverimitated at Athens — money-standard honestly maintained afterwards. —Solon is empowered to modify the political constitution. — His census— four scales of property. — Graduated liability to income-tax,of the three richest classes, one compared with the other. —Admeasurement of political rights and franchises according to thisscale — a Timocracy. — Fourth or poorest class — exercised powersonly in assembly — chose magistrates and held them to accountability.— Pro-bouleutic or pre-considering Senate of Four Hundred. — Senateof Areopagus — its powers enlarged. — Confusion frequently seenbetween Solonian and post-Solonian institutions. — Loose languageof the Athenian orators on this point. — Solon never contemplatedthe future change or revision of his own laws. — Solon laid thefoundation of the Athenian democracy, but his institutions are notdemocratical. — The real Athenian democracy begins with Kleisthenês.— Athenian government after Solon still oligarchical, but mitigated.— The archons still continue to be judges until after the time ofKleisthenês. — After-changes in the Athenian constitution overlookedby the orators, but understood by Aristotle, and strongly felt atAthens during the time of Periklês. — Gentes and Phratries underthe Solonian constitution — status of persons not included in them.— Laws of Solon. — The Drakonian laws about homicide retained; therest abrogated. — Multifarious character of the laws of Solon: noappearance of classification. — He prohibits the export of landedproduce from Attica, except oil. — The prohibition of little orno effect. — Encouragement to artisans and industry. — Power oftestamentary bequest — first sanctioned by Solon. — Laws relatingto women. — Regulations about funerals. — About evil-speaking andabusive language. — Rewards to the victors at the sacred games. —Theft. — Censure pronounced by Solon upon citizens neutral in asedition. — Necessity, under the Grecian city-governments, of somepositive sentiment on the part of the citizens. — Contrast in thisrespect between the age of Solon and the subsequent democracy. —The same idea followed out in the subsequent Ostracism. — Sentimentof Solon towards the Homeric poems and the drama. — Difficulties ofSolon after the enactment of the laws. — He retires from Attica.— Visits Egypt and Cyprus. — Alleged interview and conversationof Solon with Crœsus at Sardis. — Moral lesson arising out of thenarrative. — State of Attica after the Solonian legislation. —Return of Solon to Athens. — Rise of Peisistratus. — His memorablestratagem to procure a guard from the people. — Peisistratus seizesthe Akropolis and becomes despot — courageous resistance of Solon. —Death of Solon — his character. — Appendix, on the procedure of theRoman law respecting principal and interest in a loan of money.
EUBŒA. — CYCLADES.
The islands called Cyclades. — Eubœa. — Its six orseven towns — Chalkis, Eretria, etc. — How peopled. — Early powerof Chalkis, Eretria, Naxos[p.viii] etc. — Early Ionic festival at Dêlos; crowded andwealthy. — Its decline about 560 B. C. — causesthereof. — Homeric Hymn to the Delian Apollo — evidence as to earlyIonic life. — War between Chalkis and Eretria in early times —extensive alliances of each. — Commerce and colonies of Chalkis andEretria — Euboic scale of money and weight. — Three different Grecianscales — Æginæan, Euboic, and Attic — their ratio to each other.
Twelve Ionic cities in Asia. — Legendary event calledthe Ionic migration. — Emigrants to these cities — diverse Greeks.— Great differences of dialect among the twelve cities. — Ioniccities really founded by different migrations. — Consequences ofthe mixture of inhabitants in these colonies — more activity — moreinstability. — Mobility ascribed to the Ionic race as compared withthe Doric — arises from this cause. — Ionic cities in Asia — mixedwith indigenous inhabitants. — Worship of Apollo and Artemis —existed on the Asiatic coast prior to the Greek emigrants — adoptedby them. — Pan-Ionic festival and Amphiktyony on the promontoryof Mykalê. — Situation of Milêtus — of the other Ionic cities. —Territories interspersed with Asiatic villages. — Magnêsia on theMæander — Magnêsia on Mount Sipylus. — Ephesus — Androklus the Œkist— first settlement and distribution. — Increase and acquisitions ofEphesus. — Kolophôn, its origin and history. — Temple of Apollo atKlarus, near Kolophôn — its legends. — Lebedus, Teôs, Klazomenæ, etc.— Internal distribution of the inhabitants of Teôs. — Erythræ andChios. — Klazomenæ — Phôkæa. — Smyrna.
ÆOLIC GREEKS IN ASIA.
Twelve cities of Æolic Greeks. — Their situation— eleven near together on the Elæitic gulf. — Legendary Æolicmigration. — Kymê — the earliest as well as the most powerful ofthe twelve. — Magnêsia ad Sipylum. — Lesbos. — Early inhabitantsof Lesbos before the Æolians. — Æolic establishments in the regionof Mount Ida. — Continental settlements of Lesbos and Tenedos. —Ante-Hellenic inhabitants in the region of Mount Ida — Mysiansand Teukrians. — Teukrians of Gergis. — Mitylênê — its politicaldissensions — its poets. — Power and merit of Pittakus. — Alkæusthe poet — his flight from battle. — Bitter opposition of Pittakusand Alkæus in internal politics. — Pittakus is created Æsymnete, orDictator of Mitylênê.
Asiatic Dorians — their Hexapolis. — Other Dorians,not included in the Hexapolis. — Exclusion of Halikarnassus from theHexapolis.
NATIVES OF ASIA MINOR WITH WHOM THE GREEKS BECAMECONNECTED.
Indigenous nations of Asia Minor — Homeric geography.— Features of the country. — Names and situations of the differentpeople. — Not originally aggregated into large kingdoms or cities. —River Halys — the ethnographical boundary — Syro-Arabians eastwardof that river. — Thracian race — in the north of Asia Minor. —Ethnical affinities and migrations. — Partial identity of legends. —Phrygians. — Their influence upon the early Greek colonists. — Greekmusical scale — partly borrowed from the Phrygians. — Phrygian musicand worship among the Greeks in Asia Minor. — Character of Phrygians,Lydians, and Mysians. — Primitive Phrygian king or hero Gordius —Midas.
LYDIANS. — MEDES. — CIMMERIANS. — SCYTHIANS.
Lydians — their music and instruments. — They andtheir capital Sardis unknown to Homer. — Early Lydian kings. —Kandaulês and Gygês. — The Mermnad dynasty succeeds to the Herakleid.— Legend of Gygês in Plato. — Feminine influence running through thelegends of Asia Minor. — Distribution of Lydia into two parts — Lydiaand Torrhêbia. — Proceedings of Gygês. — His son and successor Ardys.— Assyrians and Medes. — First Median king — Dêïokês. — His historycomposed of Grecian materials, not Oriental. — Phraortês — Kyaxarês.—