The Child in Human Progress
George Henry Payne
With a Foreword by
A. Jacobi, M.D., LL.D.
With 40 Illustrations
G. P. Putnam’s Sons
New York and London
The Knickerbocker Press
GEORGE HENRY PAYNE
The Knickerbocker Press, New York
THIS is a new sort of book, and unique. Thatis why I look upon the permission to writea brief preface for it as a rare privilege. Writingson children are frequent. When, in 1875, Icontributed, for Karl Gerhardt’s immense Handbuch,my Hygiene of the Child, I quoted sevenhundred treatises or pamphlets on that subject.There are now at least seven thousand of the kind,and the number of text-books on the diseasesof children and infants do no longer lead a pardonable,rarely a laudable, existence. A few monographson special subjects, or modern publications,as Erich Wulffen’s The Child: His Nature andDegeneration (Berlin, 1913), or the two largeanthropological volumes by H. Ploss, The Childin the Customs and Morals of Nations (third editionby B. Renz, 1911), are praiseworthy examplesof useful books. But while these are instructivethey do not rouse historical interest.
Indeed, the history of the child has been grosslyneglected. The epoch-making works of Rosenstein,Charles West, Rilliet and Barthez, andKarl Gerhardt contain no history. The work ofPuschmann (Neuberger and Pagel) fills twentypages with the history of the child in a text ofvthree thousand pages relating to the history ofmedicine. Altogether our country has been disrespectfulto its best possessions, viz., the children.There was until a few decades ago not even aprofessional teaching of the children’s diseasesin our medical schools. A regular chair wasestablished in 1860 (New York Medical College),—itlasted for a few years only. The second wasin 1898 (Harvard). There were few child’shospitals or wards in hospitals until a few yearsago, even in the largest cities. Society, law,humanitarianism did not mind children. It isonly a few months that an official publication in ourdemocratic country carried the title; “Is There aNeed of a Child Labour Law?” and our civilizationwas humbled by medical discussion of the advisabilityof killing the deformed or unpromisingnew-born. It seems to take a long time beforethis republic of ours begins to work out of the rutsof semi-barbarism. And now, at last, there is abook to supply our wants.
Laymen have advanced ahead of the medicalprofession. Christ and the Stoics, the clergy andthe public opinion of the Crusades and the Christiansentiments of the Mediæval Church, aye, thegreat slaughterer and revolutionary reformer,Napoleon, have called the children under theirprotection and benefactions.
A vast amount of study relating to primarypopulaces and nations in gradual developmentwas required to learn the history of the child.viWithout the history of the child there cannot bea scientific knowledge of the thousands of years ofchild life. Nobody has given it until the authorof this book afforded us the wealth of his vaststudies. This book furnishes what no otherwork presents to us. I know of none whichacquaints us with the position of the child in hissocial, political, and humanitarian existence in allnations and in all eras. Adults and adult lifehave long been served by the endeavours ofhistorians, philosophers, and psychologists. Wedo not believe in completeness of our knowledgeunless all that have been perfected. Medical mendo not believe in possessing a scientific grasp ofany of their subjects without an embryological basis.Statesmen, aye, even politicians, of the betterclass, insist upon an ample knowledge of thehistory of their countries, their institutions, andtheir laws. That is how the last years of ourmedical and professional life in this country havedeveloped amongst us physicians the taste forhistory and such books as Fielding Garrison hasbeen able to prepare for us within the last year.
When I said the book before us was unique, Imeant to say that it is a special monograph of thelife through thousands of years of slow physical,domestic, economic, social existence of the child.No historian, no medical practitioner or teacher,surely no existing pediatrist will be without it.
New York City, December 21, 1915.
THE introduction of Dr. Jacobi has savedthe author from the onerous task, ofttimesa graceless one, of writing extended prefatoryremarks. It was in the course of some researchesinto the origin of the Child Protectionmovement in this country that I discovered howlittle attention had been paid to the historicalaspect of this important question. This bookrepresents really a process of elimination, behindwhich were many fascinating byways, alluringblind alleys, and seeming countless beckoningtheories. Toward the last, for a person withhuman instinct writing on a humane subject, itwas hard not to tilt. In the main, however, theauthor believes that he has hewed to the line.
The author is indebted for many courtesies tothe officials of the New York Public Library, likewiseto the Congressional Library at Washington,the British Museum at London, and the BibliothèqueNationale at Paris. His thanks are duealso to Dr. C. C. Williamson, formerly Chief ofthe Economics Division of the New York PublicLibrary, who took a deep and serious interest inthe work; to Professor Richard Gottheil of Columbia,viiifor many helpful suggestions in connectionwith the Semitics studies; to Professor HiramBingham of Yale, for some helpful notes on theIncas; to Mr. A. S. Freidus, Chief of the JewishDivision of the New York Public Library; toProfessor Adolf Deissmann, of the University ofBerlin; to Mr. Elbridge T. Gerry, whose libraryprovided a wealth of material; to the late ThomasD. Walsh, Superintendent of the New York S. P.C. C., a humanitarian of the first water; to Mr.Jesse B. Jackson, Mr. W. J. Yerby, Mr. CharlesH. Allbrecht, and Mr. E. A. Wakefield, all of theAmerican Consular Service; to Mr. J. WilliamDavis, for supervision of the Bibliography; to Mr.Gabriel Schlesinger, for assistance in reading theproofs; and, above all, to Mr. Robert E. MacAlarney,of Columbia University, to whose sustainingcriticism and deep personal interest the authorowes more than can be here set down.
George Henry Payne.
Kingsbridge, New York
Maternal Affection the Beginning ofHuman Altruism—Sympathy and ParentalLove the Basis of Other Virtues—TheWeakest Sacrificed in all PrimitiveSociety—Neglected Chapters in theHistory of the Attitude of Societytoward Children
Human Marriage—Evolution of the ParentalInstinct—Social Conditionsamong Papuans—Child’s Place in theTribe
The Killing of Twins—Other Excuses forInfanticide—Restricting the Family—EconomicReasons Acknowledged—Dyingof Despair
The Drowning of Daughters—EarlyMongolian Civilization Marked byAncestor Worship—Severe Characterxof Confucius—“Beginning” of Infanticide200 b.c.—Reforms of the EmperorChoentche and the Manchus in theSeventeenth Century—Decrees Reducingthe Cost of Wedding Gifts in Orderto Stop Parents from Killing FemaleChildren
Death by Neglect and Sacrifice in Japan—TheNew-Born Taboo—Myth of theExposure of the Child of the Gods—Growthof the Marriage Custom—TheArrival of the Chinese—Modern Cannibalism—ModernLaws on the Sale ofChildren
Mesopotamia the Earliest CivilizationKnown—Faint Traces of Child-Sacrifice—Lawsfor Women and Children—CensusFigures in Stones—Code ofHammurabi—The Story of Sargon
Most Ancient Nation was Kind to Children—EconomicPressure Brought NoSpecial Cruelty—Picture of the Proletariat—Abjurationsof the OldestBook in the World—Egyptians as Seenby Diodorus Siculus—DegeneratingEffect of Greek Supremacy
Children in India—Story of the Mahabharata—FemaleChild Despised—AHundred Cows the Price of a Son—RecordsLeft by Historians of Alexander’sConquest—Attempts by BritishGovernment to Check Infanticide—Workof Jonathan Duncan and Col.Alexander Walker
Semitic Development in Canaan—Sacrificeof the First-Born Persists—Origin ofthe Idea of Sacrifice—The CustomWorld-wide among Primitive Peoples—Associatedwith Cannibalism—TheFoundation Sacrifice—Discoveries inPalestine
Hebrew Writers on the Origin of theReligion of Humanity—Child SacrificeCondemned in the Story of Isaac—CircumcisionSubstituted—Reversion toBarbaric Habits in Canaan—Triumph ofthe Prophets
Ancient Arabians Were Cannibalistic—Daughterstoo Expensive to Rear—Conditionsbefore the Coming of theProphet—The Injunctions of Mohammed—HisLaw as Found in “Al Hidaya”
Exposure by a Civilized People—Lack ofHumanity among the Greeks—TheirMythology an Evidence—Children inHomer
Female Children not Desirable amongGreeks—Precautions for Saving ExposedChildren—Ornaments as aMeans of Identification—Adoptionunder Strange Circumstances
First Recognition of Rights of Children—Lawsof Romulus and of Numa Pompilius—TheTwelve Tables—Attitude ofParents Shown in Terence—PatriaPotestas Sparingly Used
Humanitarian Measures of Augustus—Lifein the Imperial City—First Attemptsof the State to Check Infanticide—Trajanand the Veleia Loan—StoicSpirit in Pliny’s Charity
Reforms of Hadrian—Punishment ofFathers—Valerius Maximus—FavouriteStreets in Rome for Leaving AbandonedChildren—Mutilating Childrenfor Profit
Progress under the Antonines—Faustina’sEfforts to Save Female Children—ChristianSentiment Grows—Plea ofLactantius—Its Effects—Constantine
Pleas of the Christian Fathers
Conditions among the Peoples who Conqueredthe Roman Empire—Irish SacrificedFirst-Born—The Wergeld—TheSalic Law—Code of the Visigoths onExposed Children—Theodoric and Cassiodorus
Growth of the Humanitarian Movementthroughout Europe—In the Dark Ages—ChurchTakes up the HumanitarianWork in the Seventh Century—Sale ofChildren Common—Story of SaintBathilde—Children Sold for Father’sDebts—Datheus the First to OfferChildren a Home—Appeal of PopeInnocent III.
Cruelty to Children in the Sixteenth andSeventeenth Century—Attempt atRegulation—Deforming Children forMountebank Purposes—Anecdote ofxivVincent de Paul—His Work and HisSuccess
Rise of Factory System—The Child aCharge on the State—Children ActuallySlaves under Factory System—Reformof 1833—Oastler against theChild Slavery—“Juvenile Labour inFactories is a National Blessing”
Industrial Conditions in America—Protectionfor Animals—Founding of theSociety for the Prevention of Crueltyto Children—Spread of the Movementthroughout the World—Origin inNew York City
Appendix A—Napoleonic Decree of 1811
Appendix B—Certificate of Incorporationof the New York Society for the Preventionof Cruelty to Children
Appendix C—Treatment of Children
Mr. Elbridge T. Gerry
Founder of the Society for the Prevention of Crueltyto Children
Native East African Mother and Infant
|(Courtesy of Museum of Natural History, NewYork)|
A Well-Cared for Eskimo Infant
(Courtesy of Museum of Natural History, New York)
|Family Life among Birds. Group of AmericanEgret||20|
|(Courtesy of Museum of Natural History, NewYork)|
A Family of Anthropoid Apes, from a Drawingby Dan Beard
(Courtesy of Museum of Natural History, NewYork)
Family of Polar Bears
(Courtesy of Museum of Natural History, NewYork)
Primitive Family Life among the HopiIndians
(Courtesy of the Museum of Natural History,New York)
A Hindu Child-Mother, whose Cares willMake her Old at Thirty
Zulu Girl with Baby. The Practice ofExposure Ended among the Zulus onlywithin the Present Generation
Special Repository for Bodies of NeglectedBabies, China
(Reproduced from “China in Decay”)
An Overburdened Chinese Child Carryingmore than his Weight in Tea
(Copyright by Underwood & Underwood, N. Y.)
“Little Mothers”—the One Five, theOther Eight, Years Old—China
Tsuchi-Ningio. Clay Figure Substitutedfor Human Sacrifice—Japan
(Reproduced from “Transactions and Proceedingsof the Japan Society,” Volume I)
Crock Containing Remains of SacrificedChild. Unearthed at Tell Ta’Annek
(Reproduced from “Life in Ancient Egypt”)
A Pomeioc Chieftain’s Wife and Child
(From the Original Water-Colour Drawing in theBritish Museum by John White, Governor of Virginia in 1587)
Eskimo Mother Carrying Infant in herHood
(From the Original