The Southern Literary Messenger, Vol. I., No. 12, August, 1835
SOUTHERN LITERARY MESSENGER:
EVERY DEPARTMENT OF LITERATURE
THE FINE ARTS.
|Au grť de nos desirs bien plus qu'au grť des vents.|
|As we will, and not as the winds will.|
T. W. WHITE, PUBLISHER AND PROPRIETOR.
CONTENTS OF VOLUME I, NUMBER 12
EXTRAORDINARY INDIAN FEATS OFLEGERDEMAIN: by D. D. Mitchell, Esquire
REMARKABLE DREAM AND PREDICTION,WITH THEIR FULFILMENT: by D. D. Mitchell, Esquire
ON THE DEATH OF JAMESGIBBON CARTER: by Marcella
STANZAS: by F. L. B.
LIONEL GRANBY (Chap. V): by Theta
BURNING OF THE RICHMONDTHEATRE: by M. L. P.
LINES WRITTEN IN ANALBUM: by Jack Tell
GIRL OF BEAUTY: by Jack Tell
THE RECLAIMED: by Paulina
THIS OCEAN: by J. M. C. D.
TO F——: by H.
SONG: by Morna
REMEMBER ME,LOVE: by Mrs. Ann Roy
TO SARAH: by Sylvio
BON-BON—ATALE: by Edgar A. Poe
TO AN INFANT NEPHEWIN ENGLAND: by Mrs. Ann Roy
LINES: by Alex. Lacey Beard
THE COLISEUM: a prize poem by Edgar A. Poe
LINES written in the village of A——,Virginia: by A. L. B.
MY FIRST NIGHT IN AWATCHHOUSE (Chap. II): by Pertinax Placid
CRITICAL NOTICES AND LITERARY INTELLIGENCE
VISIT TO THE AMERICANCHURCHES: by Doctors Reed and Matheson
THE BLACKWATCH: by the author of the Dominie's Legacy
MAGPIE CASTLE: by Theodore Hook
THE AMERICAN JOURNALOF SCIENCE AND THE ARTS, Vol. XXVII, No. 11: byBenjamin Silliman, M.D., L.L.D. &c.
THE MANUAL OFPHRENOLOGY
RECOLLECTIONS OF AN EXCURSION TOTHE MONASTERIES OF ALCOBACA AND BATALHA:by Beckford, the author of Vathek
THE WIFE ANDWOMAN'S REWARD: by the Hon. Mrs. Norton, editress ofthe London Court Journal
THE BROTHERS,a Tale of the Fronde: by Mr. Herbert
LETTERS TO YOUNGLADIES: by Mrs. L. H. Sigourney
THE COMPREHENSIVEPRONOUNCING AND EXPLANATORYDICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, with PronouncingVocabularies of Classical, Scriptural and Modern Geographical Names: by J. E. Worcester
Miscellaneous other publications: by various authors
SOUTHERN LITERARY MESSENGER.
SKETCHES OF THE HISTORY
And Present Condition of Tripoli, with some accounts of the otherBarbary States.
Events of great importance had also occurred in Algiers, by which thisancient stronghold of piracy was stripped of its terrors, and itsimpotence fully demonstrated.
The resources of this state were even more severely affected by thewars of Europe, than those of Tunis and Tripoli, as it depended lessthan either of them upon native industry for support. A Pasha ofAlgiers, who wished to retain his throne and consequently his life,was forced to keep his troops engaged in wars from which they mightindividually derive profit; to increase their pay at the expense ofthe public treasury was ineffectual, and he who attempted thus to wintheir favor was soon despised and overthrown. They required theexcitement of contests and plunder, and bread not won at the dagger'spoint seems to have had no relish with them. In 1805, thesedesperadoes murdered their Dey Mustapha, only because he was of toopeaceable a disposition. Under Achmet his successor, they had a warwith Tunis, but it was conducted in a very languid manner, for noplunder could be expected.
The United States continued to pay the enormous annual tribute whichhad been stipulated in the treaty of 1796, but not punctually. Thelittle respect which was paid to neutral rights at that period byFrance and England, rendered the transmission of the naval storescomposing the tribute difficult and unsafe, and this was the reasonalways alleged by the American Consul in accounting for the delay; butit was also in a great measure intentional, from the idea on which theother nations tributary to Algiers acted, that by thus remainingalways in arrears, the fear of losing the whole sum due, would renderthe Dey less inclined to make any sudden depredations on theircommerce. A strict adherence to engagements voluntarily entered into,would have been perhaps the better, and certainly much the moredignified course, as the Dey would have found it to his interest toconciliate those who paid so regularly.
Whilst the American squadron remained in the Mediterranean, theseexcuses were listened to without many signs of impatience, but on itsdeparture Achmet raised his tone, and after threatening for some time,he at length in the latter part of 1807 sent out his cruisers withorders to seize American vessels, informing Mr. Lear at the same time,that this was not to be considered as a hostile proceeding, and shouldnot disturb the peace between the two countries.
The Algerine cruisers took three American vessels, of which two werebrought into port and condemned; the crew of the third the schoonerMary Anne, rose upon their captors, killed four of them, and havingset the remaining four adrift in a boat, carried the vessel safe intoNaples. As soon as the Dey received the news of this, he ordered theAmerican Consul instantly to pay sixteen thousand dollars assatisfaction for the lives of his eight subjects. Mr. Lear endeavoredto obtain a delay until he could receive the orders of his government;but he was threatened with imprisonment, and a number of ships of warwere ready to sail for the purpose of plundering American vessels; hetherefore, after a formal protest, paid the sixteen thousand dollarsfor the Algerines killed, as well as the whole amount of the tributethen due.
Shortly after this occurrence, on the 7th of November, 1808, theTurkish soldiery revolted, and having killed Achmet, placed in hisstead Ali the keeper of a small mosque. What were their reasons forsuch a choice cannot be stated, but the expectations of the Turks seemnot to have been fulfilled; for on the 4th of March, 1809, theyquietly took their sovereign to the common house of correction, andthere strangled him. They then raised to the throne a decrepid old mannamed Hadji Ali, whose character was much more conformable with theirwishes, for he proved to be one of the most energetic, as well as mostferocious tyrants ever known even in Algiers. He determined to revivethe old glory of his state, and again to offer to all Christiannations the alternative of war or tribute.
Great Britain and France were at that time the only commercial nationsat peace with Algiers and paying no fixed tribute, yet they vied witheach other in the richness of their presents, which were made withgreat regularity on all public occasions. Great Britain too, passivelyencouraged the piratical propensity of the Algerines, by allowing themto plunder and carry off the miserable inhabitants of the territorieswhich were occupied by her troops and at least nominally under herprotection, while France and the countries subject to or in alliancewith her, were secure from such depredations. The British did more;for in 1810,—when neutral commerce had been extinguished, and theresources of Algiers were in consequence almost cut off, as neithercould tribute be sent nor compensation be obtained for it bypiracy—at this conjuncture two large ships and a brig entered theharbor, laden with warlike munitions, the whole sent as a present tothe Dey from the government of Great Britain. Seventy thousand dollarswere soon after received through the agency of the same governmentfrom Spain, in satisfaction for a pretended injury committed by aSpanish vessel.
By the aid of this timely supply, Hadji Ali was enabled to fit out arespectable naval force, which under the command of the Rais Hamida adaring and skilful corsair, sailed for the coast of Portugal, and forsome time continued to insult and plunder the vessels of that wretchedkingdom; this too, at a period when its fortresses were held byBritish troops, and its harbors filled with British ships of war.
At the commencement of 1812, it was almost certain that war would soontake place between the United States and Great Britain; in expectationof this, it was important to the latter power to raise up as manyenemies as possible to the Americans, and to deprive them of places ofrefuge for their vessels. It was principally with this object, that anEnvoy was sent to the Barbary States; and he was made the bearer of aletter from the Prince Regent to the Dey, containing an offer ofalliance, with the obligation on the part of Great Britain to protectAlgiers against all its enemies, on condition of the observance ofexisting treaties between the two nations. The Envoy, Mr.A'Court,1was a man well calculated for carrying into effect the objects forwhich he was chosen, and he here first gave proofs of those talentswhich have since raised him to exalted stations in his country. Hesoon acquired great influence over the savage Turk; he demonstrated tohim the designs and advances of Napoleon towards universal dominion,and made him tremble for the safety of his own Regency. On the otherhand, he exhibited the mighty naval power of Great Britain, andendeavored to convince the Dey, that he could only escape the fate ofthe greater part of the European sovereigns, by seconding her effortsin resisting the insatiable conqueror. The United States wererepresented as the allies of France, possessing an extensive commerce,but having no naval force to protect it.
1 Now Lord Haytesbury.
These views were confirmed by the assurances of the Jewish merchants,who conducted nearly all the outward trade of Algiers, and who weregenerally consulted on points of foreign policy. A truce was inconsequence obtained for Sicily, the captives from that island beinghowever retained in slavery. A peace was also negotiated betweenAlgiers and Portugal, the latter agreeing to pay a large sumimmediately, and a heavy annual tribute in future. However, the Deycould not be led to declare war against the dreaded Emperor of France,although he had no objection to a quarrel with the United States,conceiving that it might be made very profitable, either bydepredations on their commerce, or by obtaining an increase of theirtribute. He gave the first hint of his intentions to the AmericanConsul, by sending him the Prince Regent's letter, under pretence ofrequesting a translation of it into Italian, but really for thepurpose of inducing him to bid higher for the friendship of Algiers.No notice being taken of this, he became more insolent in his demandsand threats.
At length, on the 17th of July, 1812, the ship Alleghany arrived atAlgiers, laden with naval and military stores, which were sent to theDey and Regency by the United States, according to the terms of thetreaty of 1796. The Dey at first expressed his entire satisfactionwith what was sent, and a part of the cargo was landed; a few daysafter, the Minister of Marine informed the American Consul, that hismaster had been much astonished on examining the lists of thearticles, to find that several of them were not in such quantities ashe had required, and also that some cases containing arms had beenlanded at Gibraltar, for the Emperor of Morocco; that he consideredthe latter circumstance as an insult to himself, and he would not,therefore, receive any part of the cargo of the ship. Mr. Learendeavored to show that the value of the articles sent, was more thanequal to the amount due by the United States, and that if this weretrue, the Dey should not complain if a part of the cargo originallyshipped were destined for another purpose.
In reply to this a new demand was made. By the treaty of 1796 theUnited States engaged to pay, "annually to the Dey the value of twelvethousand Algerine sequins (21,000 dollars) in maritime stores," andpayment to this amount had been made for each year since 1796. The Deynow contended that the time should have been counted by the Mahometancalendar which gives only 354 days to the year, and that consequentlythe United States owed him arrears of tribute for six months, to whichthe differences between the Mahometan and Christian years since 1796,when added together would amount. Against this novel demand, theConsul remonstrated