The Elements of Child-protection
Footnote anchors are denoted by [number],and the footnotes have been placed at the end of the book.
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Some minor changes to the text are noted at the end of the book.
ELEMENTS OF CHILD-PROTECTION
THE ELEMENTS OF
DOCTOR OF LAWS AND OF POLITICS; OFFICIAL GUARDIAN AND ADVOCATE
TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN BY
DR. EDEN PAUL
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
Printed by Ballantyne, Hanson & Co.
At the Ballantyne Press, Edinburgh
During the latter half of the nineteenth century, the importanceof child-protection gained a far wider recognition.
The nineteenth century has been well named “TheCentury of the Child.” But there are reasons no lesscogent for describing this century as “The Century ofSocialism,” or “The Century of Darwinism.”
The intimate interdependence of child-protection withSocialism and with Darwinism must on no account beoverlooked. It was my own assurance of this twofoldinterdependence which led me to undertake the study ofthe whole system of child-protection from the joint outlookof Socialism and of Darwinism. This book is aninvestigation of all the problems involved by child-protectionfrom the standpoints of the modern socialist movementand of modern social science.
My work makes no attempt to be either a “Philosophyof Child-Protection” or a “Handbook of Child-Protection.”For this reason it contains no definitions, it gives no historyof child-protection, and attempts no detailed description ofthe institutions which exist for the purpose of child-protectionin the various countries of the civilised world.
In view of the almost incalculable bulk of the materialsavailable in this field of study, I have been forced to contentmyself with a brief indication of my opinions in the variousdepartments, without endeavouring to go into details. Obviously,therefore, those in need of detailed information will notfind it in this book. My aim has rather been to effect alucid presentation of all the problems of child-protection,[vi]than to attempt myself to supply the solution of all theseproblems.
If I have been successful in formulating the main problemsof my subject, and if at the same time my discussionsand the data I have supplied, enable the reader to draw hisown conclusions in each case, my aim has been adequatelyfulfilled.
|CERTAIN POPULATION PROBLEMS|
|Child-Protection and the Population Question—Fertility of the Lower Classes—The Tendency of Evolution||1|
|STATISTICAL PROBLEMS OF POPULATION|
|Miscarriages, Premature Births, and Still-Births—Mortality—The Productive Age and the Unproductive Age—Classification of the Population according to Age—The Excess of Women—Marriage—Illegitimate Sexual Relations||11|
|Statistical Data—Certain Contributory Causes—The Chief Causes of Infant Mortality—The Great Number of Children—Child Mortality in the Towns—The Effect of Housing Conditions—The Effect of Age—Time of Birth, Seasons, and Meteorological Conditions||17|
|THE QUALITY OF THE POPULATION; ARTIFICIAL SELECTION (EUGENICS) AND EDUCATION|
|Natural Selection and Artificial Selection—The Interests of the Future Generation—Inheritance and Education—Nature of Education—Character of the Child—Limits of Educability—The Aim of Education—Good Example—Confidence and Love—Reward and Punishment—Education by the Parents—Education in different Social Classes—Parents, School, Environment—The Tendency of Evolution||25|
|PROS AND CONS OF CHILD-PROTECTION|
|Introductory—Objections to Child-Protection—Objections to the Care of Foundlings—Darwinism versus Poor-Relief—Darwinism versus Child-Protection—The Right View—Socialism versus Poor-Relief—Socialism versus Child-Protection—The Right View||42|
|THE EXECUTIVE INSTRUMENTS OF CHILD-PROTECTION|
|Introductory—Local Governing Bodies—The Community at large—The Central Government—A Unified System of Laws for Child-Protection—A Centralised Authority for Child-Protection—Private and Official Activities—The Medical Profession—Women||58|
|A.—Department of Civil Law and Individual Rights|
|MARRIAGE AND PARENTAL AUTHORITY|
|Introductory—Parental Authority and Marriage—History of Marriage—Child-Protection and the Family—Maternal Authority—Fiduciary Character of Parental Authority—The Elementary Principles of State Interference with Parental Authority (the State as “Over-Parent”)||71|
|MARRIAGE AND HEREDITY|
|Heredity in General—Inheritance of Diseases—Individual Diseases—The Age of the Parents—The Marriage of Near Kin—Disease in the Parents from the Legal Standpoint—Divorce—Marriage-Prohibitions in Past Times—Proposed Reforms—Objections—The Right View—How to Effect Reforms—The Tendency of Evolution||77|
|THE PROTECTION OF ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN|
|The Legal Position of the Illegitimate Child—Reasons for these Legal Disabilities—Advantages and Disadvantages of Illegitimate Birth—Abortion, Premature Birth, Still-Birth—Childbirth in Unmarried Mothers—Causes [ix] of the Great Mortality of Illegitimate Children—Criminality in the Illegitimate—Illegitimacy and Prostitution—Occupation in Relation to Illegitimacy—The Different Classes of the Illegitimate—Illegitimacy and Child-Protection—The Tendency of Evolution—A Radical Reform||90|
|LIMITED POWERS OF MINORS, AND GUARDIANSHIP|
|Limited Powers of Minors—The Tendency of Evolution—Nature of Guardianship—Guardianship of Poor Children—Guardianship of Illegitimate Children—The Defects of Individual Guardianship—Nature of Official and Institutional Guardianship—Advantages of Official and Institutional Guardianship—Objections to Collective and Institutional Guardianship—These Objections Answered—The Tendency of Evolution—Certain Civil Laws which are of Importance in Relation to Child-Protection||106|
|B.—Department of Local Administrative Activity|
|CHILD-PROTECTION BEFORE, DURING, AND IMMEDIATELY AFTER BIRTH|
|Introductory—Before Birth—During Birth—After Birth—The Insurance of Motherhood—The Tendency of Evolution||118|
|Introductory—Advantages of the Natural Feeding of Infants—History of Artificial Feeding—Causes of the Failure to Suckle—Wet-Nurses—Cow’s Milk—Other Methods of Artificial Feeding—Institutional Care of Infants—The Crèche—Proposed Reforms—Radical Solution of the Problem||125|
|THE CARE OF FOUNDLINGS, WET-NURSING, AND BABY-FARMING|
|Terminology—History of the Care of Foundlings—The Latin System and the Germanic System—Some Modern Methods for the Care of Foundlings—Foundling Hospitals, Wet-Nursing, and Baby Farms—Institutional Care versus Family Care—Supervision of Family Care—Subsidiary Aims of the Care of Foundlings—The Tendency of Evolution||141|
|WOMEN’S LABOUR AND CHILD-LABOUR|
|History of Child Labour—Diffusion of Child Labour—The Causes of Child Labour—Women’s Labour—The Consequences of Child Labour—The Consequences of Women’s Labour—Regulation of Child Labour—Regulation|