The Pennsylvania Journal of Prison Discipline and Philanthropy (Vol. VII, No. III, July 1852)
VOL. VII.TERMS:—ONE DOLLAR A YEAR IN ADVANCE.NO. III.THE
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF “THE PHILADELPHIA SOCIETY FOR ALLEVIATINGTHE MISERIES OF PUBLIC PRISONS,” INSTITUTED 1787.
“The separation of one prisoner from another is the only sound basis on which a reformatory(prison) discipline can be established with any reasonable hope of success.”—Fifth Report of Inspectorsof English Prisons.
E. C. AND J. BIDDLE,
SOUTHWEST CORNER OF FIFTH AND MINOR STREETS.
LONDON: CHARLES GILPIN.
Isaac Ashmead, Printer.ii
CONTENTS OF NO. III.
IMPORTANT AND VALUABLE DOCUMENTS.
The Seventeenth Report of the Eastern State Penitentiary.—A few copies of this document, whichincludes the elaborate tables of the medical officer—showing the sanitary condition of the institutionfrom its commencement.
Numbers 1 and 2 of volume I. of this Journal—the first containing a Review of the History ofPenal Legislation in Pennsylvania, and several plates, illustrative of prison architecture; and thesecond containing a beautiful steel portrait of Mrs. Elizabeth Fry, and a view of the New Prison atPentonville, near London, and an account of its discipline and results.
Either of the above may be had on application to any member of the Acting Committee.
☞ Communications and orders for this work, may be addressed “Editor of the Journal of PrisonDiscipline,” care of the publishers, No. 6, South Fifth Street, Philadelphia.
☞ Officers of State, Inspectors, or Wardens of Penitentiaries, Keepers of Common Gaols, Houses ofCorrection, &c., Superintendents or Physicians of Insane Asylums, (whether public or private, andwhether for paupers or pay-patients,) officers of Houses of Refuge, Police Magistrates, and otherswho may be in possession of, or have access to reports or other documents bearing on prison discipline,insanity, juvenile delinquency, police regulations, pauperism, &c., &c., will confer a particularfavour by forwarding to the above office copies of such publications for use or notice in this Journal.All such attentions will be gratefully acknowledged, and cheerfully reciprocated.
From the North American and United States’ Gazette.
We have received from Messrs. E. C. & J. Biddle the last number of thePennsylvania Journal of Prison Discipline, which is published quarterly, underthe direction of the Philadelphia Society for alleviating the Miseries of PublicPrisons. A glance through its pages shows what is well understood—that it is ahighly valuable periodical, communicating much and various important informationupon the subject of which it treats. It is the only publication of the kind inthe country, is certainly a very much needed one, and ought, therefore, to be wellsustained by the public.
15 DEC.R 1792.
28 MARCH 1852.
On page 102, fourth line from the top, for Russian read Prussian.97
Vol. VII.—JULY, 1852.—No. 3.
Art. I.—JOHN HAVILAND.
It is not long since the Philadelphia Society for Alleviatingthe Miseries of Public Prisons recorded the decease of the lastof its founders; the survivor of that little group of enlightenedand benevolent men, who, in the year 1787, commenced thework of prison reform in Pennsylvania. The society has nowto add to the roll of the departed, the name of one who is to behenceforth associated with the history of that reform, as thechief pioneer of its architectural progress. They who, in wisdomand the love of their kind, conceived the morality of ourdiscipline, and their fellow-laborer who faithfully and earnestlyand successfully sought to give to it an outward embodimentadapted to its complex designs, now sleep together. Our readerswill participate in the interest with which we recall someof the leading incidents of a life so closely connected as wasthat of John Haviland, with the great subject to which ourpages are devoted.
Mr. Haviland was born on the 15th of December, 1792, inthe county of Somerset, England. He was the son of JamesHaviland, of Gundenham Manor, in that county, and of Ann,daughter of the Rev. Benjamin Cobley, of Ide in the county ofDevon, Rector of Dodbrook. His academic studies were completed98in his native county; and as his tastes, even in boyhood,inclined him towards the profession of an architect, he removedto London, and became a pupil of James Elmes. His preparatorytraining under that gentleman had been scarcely finished,when his enterprise was solicited by inducements from abroad.A sister of his mother had married an officer of distinction inthe Russian naval service, who was then Minister of Marine,under the Emperor Alexander, Count Morduinoff. As thisgentleman was disposed to promote the advancement of hisyoung relative, the latter hoped, through his influence, to obtainan appointment in the imperial corps of engineers, and promptlyaccepted an invitation from him to visit St. Petersburg. Uponarriving in Russia, and considering the various motives presentedfor the guidance of his future career, particularly thereports which had been received of the state of architecture inthis country, and of the opening existing here for professionalskill and activity, Mr. Haviland, in accordance with the adviceof his friends, resolved to embark for America. He wasfurnished with letters of introduction, amongst which was onefrom General Von Sonntag, who had been a resident at Philadelphia,and whose sister Mr. Haviland subsequently married.He landed in this city in September, 1816.
With this portion of our sketch, there are associations whichdeserve to be mentioned, not only because of their intrinsicvalue, but because they are in beautiful harmony with laterevents, and must have influenced, in some degree, the thoughtsand feelings of our architect. When the philanthropist Howardwas at Cherson, in 1789-90, he formed an acquaintancewith Admiral Morduinoff, then chief of the Black Seafleet. Their relations soon ripened into those of an intimatefriendship, which was cemented both by the amiable qualitiesof the Russian officer, and by his warm sympathy with thefeelings and plans of the reformer. When the latter fell a victimto the infection to which he had exposed himself, his lastmoments were attended by Morduinoff. The memory of thishonorable friendship was reverently cherished by the survivor,who loved to dwell upon the discoveries and designs of thegreat Englishman; and we cannot doubt, that the young Havilandbecame an auditor of precious reminiscences. It is certain99that the friend who shared the last sympathetic throb of theheart of Howard, was he whose hand was extended to guidetowards our country the architect, under whose directing skill,was to arise the most complete embodiment which the worldhad seen, of Howard’s reform.
It was not long after his arrival here, that Mr. Havilandfound an opportunity for the exercise of his professional skill.Amongst his first public works was the Presbyterian church onWashington Square; an edifice which, compared with the latestof our churches, ranks well with respect to the chief conveniencesof such a structure; and which, if judged by the buildingsexisting here at the date of its erection, gives a very favorableidea of the young artist’s capability, and of the liberal scope ofhis mind. It is not, however, our purpose to review his works,except in connection with our penal institutions; towards whichhe soon found himself directed by the wants of his adoptedstate. After a series of appeals to the legislature, and finally tothe public, the Prison Society, acting in conjunction with theofficers of our prisons, had succeeded in obtaining (in 1818) theenactment of a law, authorizing the construction of a prison forconvicts, at Pittsburg, in the western part of the State. Amongstthe plans which were offered to the judgment of the commissioners,appointed to superintend the construction, was onepresented by Mr. H. We regret not to be able through aninspection of this plan to exhibit the earliest conception of hismind upon such a subject; the preference was given to anotherdesign, and his drawings are not within our reach. The choiceof the commissioners was unfortunate, as there will be occasionhereafter to notice.
The insufficiency of the prisons in the eastern part of theState, became the motive to further applications to the government;and in the year 1821, an act of the legislature providedfor the erection of a State Penitentiary, at Philadelphia. Mr.Haviland again entered into the competition of architects, andwas successful in obtaining and maintaining the direction of thework, not only during its early progress, but until the completionof the last block of cells. As it is by this institution, thathis reputation has been most widely extended, it may not be100inappropriate to recall some of the peculiar circumstances inwhich his