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Races and Peoples_ Lectures on the Science of Ethnography

Races and Peoples_ Lectures on the Science of Ethnography
Category: Ethnology
Title: Races and Peoples_ Lectures on the Science of Ethnography
Release Date: 2018-06-12
Type book: Text
Copyright Status: Public domain in the USA.
Date added: 27 March 2019
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RACES AND PEOPLES
LECTURES
ON THE
SCIENCE OF ETHNOGRAPHY
BY
DANIEL G. BRINTON, A.M., M.D.,
Professor of Ethnology at the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia,
and of American Archæology and Linguistics in the University of Pennsylvania;
President of the American Folk-Lore Society and of the
Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia; Member
of the Anthropological Societies of Berlin and Vienna and of
the Ethnographical Societies of Paris and Florence, of
the Royal Society of Antiquaries, Copenhagen, the
Royal Academy of History of Madrid, the
American Philosophical Society, the
American Antiquarian Society,
Etc., Etc., Etc.
PHILADELPHIA
DAVID McKAY, Publisher
1901

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Copyright
By D. G. Brinton.

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TO
HORATIO HALE,
PHILOLOGIST TO THE UNITED STATES EXPLORING
EXPEDITION IN 1838-42,
WHOSE MANY AND VALUABLE
CONTRIBUTIONS TO LINGUISTICS AND ETHNOGRAPHY
PLACE HIM TO-DAY AMONG THE FOREMOST AUTHORITIES
ON THESE SCIENCES,
THIS VOLUME
IS INSCRIBED IN RESPECT AND FRIENDSHIP
BY THE AUTHOR.
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PREFACE.

The lectures which appear in this volume were deliveredat the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia,in the early months of 1890. They have since been writtenout, and references added in the foot-notes to a numberof works and articles, which will enable the student topursue his readings on any point in which he may be interested.My endeavor has been to present the results ofthe latest and most accurate researches on the subjectstreated; though no one can be better aware than myselfthat in compressing such an extensive science into solimited a space, I have often necessarily been superficial.It is some excuse for the publication, if one is needed,that I am not aware of any other recent work upon thisscience written in the English language.

Philadelphia, August, 1890.

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CONTENTS.

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LECTURE I.
PAGE
THE PHYSICAL ELEMENTS OF ETHNOGRAPHY 17
Contents.—Differences and resemblances in individuals and races the basis of Ethnography. The Bones. Craniology. Its limited value. Long and short skulls. Height of skull. Sutures. Inca bone. The orbital index. The nasal index. The maxillary and facial angles. The cranial capacity. The teeth. The iliac bones. Length of the arms. The flattened tibia. The projecting heel. The heart line. The Color. Its extent; cause; scale of colors. Color of the eyes. The Hair. Shape in cross section; abundance. The muscular structure; anomalies in; muscular habits: arrow releases. Steatopygy, Stature and proportion; the “canon of proportion;” special senses; the color-sense. Ethnic relations of the sexes. Beauty; muscular power; brain capacity; viability. Correlation of physical traits to vital powers. Tolerance of climate and disease. Causes of the fixation of ethnic traits. Climate; food supply; natural selection; conscious selection; the physical ideal; sexual preference; abhorrence of incest; exogamous marriages. Causes of variation in types. Changes in environment; migrations; reversion; albinism and melanism; fecundity and sterility. The mingling of races; métissage. Physical criteria of racial superiority. Review of physical elements. 8
LECTURE II.
THE PSYCHICAL ELEMENTS OF ETHNOGRAPHY 51
Contents.—The mental differences of races. Ethnic psychology. Cause of psychical development.
I. The Associative Elements. 1. The Social Instincts: sexual impulse; primitive marriage; conception of love; parental affection; filial and fraternal affection; friendship; ancestral worship; the gens or clan; the tribe; personal loyalty; the social organization; systems of consanguinity; position of woman in the state; ethical standards; modesty. 2. Language: universality of; primeval speech; rise of linguistic stocks; their number; grammatical structure; classes of languages; morphologic scheme; relation of language to thought; significance of language in ethnography. 3. Religion: universality of; early forms; family and tribal religions; universal or world religions; ethnic study of religions; comparison of Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism; material and ideal religions; associative influences of religions. 4. The Arts of Life: architecture; agriculture; domestication of animals; inventions.
II. The Dispersive Elements: adaptability of man to surroundings. 1. The Migratory Instincts: love of roaming; early commerce; lines of traffic and migration. 2. The Combative Instincts: primitive condition of war; love of combat; its advantages; heroes; development through conflict.
LECTURE III.
THE BEGINNINGS AND SUBDIVISIONS OF RACES 79
Contents.—The origin of Man. Theories of monogenism and polygenism; of evolution; heterogenesis. Identities point to one origin. Birthplace of the species. The oldest human relics. Remains of the highest apes. Question of climate. Negative arguments. Darwin’s belief that the species originated 9 in Africa confirmed; but with modifications. Quarternary geography of Europe and Africa. Northern Africa united with Southern Europe. Former shore lines. The Sahara Sea. The quaternary continents of “Eurafrica” and “Austafrica.” Relics of man in them. Man in pre-glacial times. The Glacial Age. Effect on man. His condition and acquirements. Appearance of primitive man. His development into races. Approximate data of this. Localities where it occurred. The “areas of characterization.” Relations of continents to races. Theory of Linnaeus; of modern ethnography. The continental areas: Eurafrica; Austafrica; Asia; America. Classification of races. Subdivisions of races; branches; stocks; groups; peoples; tribes; nations. General ethnographic scheme. Other terms: ethnos and ethnic; culture; civilization. Stadia of culture.
LECTURE IV.
THE EURAFRICAN RACE; SOUTH MEDITERRANEAN BRANCH 103
Contents.—The White Race. Synonyms. Properly an African Race; relative areas; purest specimens. Types of the White race; Libyo-Teutonic type; Cymric type; Celtic type; Euskaric type. Variability of traits. Primal home of the White Race not in Asia, but in Eurafrica. Early migrations and subdivisions. North Mediterranean and South Mediterranean branches.
A.The South Mediterranean Branch.
I. The Hamitic Stock. Relation to Semitic. 1. The Libyan Group. Location. Peoples included. Physical appearance. The Libyan blondes; languages. Early history; European affiliations; relations to Iberian tribes: the names Iberi and Berberi. Government. Migration. The Etruscans as Libyans. Later history; present culture. Syrian Hamites and their influence. 2. The Egyptian Group. 10 Kinship to Libyans. Physical appearance. The stone age in Egypt. Antiquity of Egyptian culture. Its influence. Physical traits. 3. The East African Group. Relations to Egypt.
II. The Semitic Stock. First entered Arabia from Africa. 1. The Arabian Group. Early divisions and culture. The Arabs. Physical types; mental temperament; religious idealisms. 2. The Abyssinian Group. Tribes included. Period of migration. Condition. 3. The Chaldean Group. Tribes included. The modern Jew.
LECTURE V.
THE EURAFRICAN RACE; NORTH MEDITERRANEAN BRANCH 141
Contents.B.The North Mediterranean Branch.
I. The Euskaric Stock. Basques and their congeners. Physical type. Language.
II. The Aryac Stock. Synonyms. Origin of the Aryans. Supposed Asiatic origin now doubted. The Aryac physical type. The prot-Aryac language. Culture of proto-Aryans. The “proto-Aryo-Semitic” tongue. Development of inflections. Prot-Aryac migrations. Southern and northern streams. Approximate dates. Scheme of Aryac migrations. Divisions. 1. The Celtic Peoples. Members and location. Physical and mental traits. 2. The Italic Peoples. Ancient and modern members. Physical traits. The modern Romance nations. Mental traits. 3. The Illyric Peoples. Members and physical traits. 4. The Hellenic Peoples. Ancient and modern Greeks. Physical type. Influence of Greek culture. 5. The Lettic Peoples. Position and language. 6. The Teutonic Peoples. Ancient and modern members. Mental character. Recent progress. 7. The Slavonic Peoples. Ancient and modern members. Physical traits. Recent expansion. Character. Relations to Asiatic Aryans. 8. The Indo-Eranic Peoples. Arrival in Asia. Location. Members. Indian Aryans. Appearance. Mental aptitude. 11
III. The Caucasic Stock. Its languages. Various groups and members. Physical types. Error of supposing the white race came from the Caucasus.
LECTURE VI.
THE AUSTAFRICAN RACE 173
Contents.—Former geography of Africa. Area of characterization of the race. Its early extension. Divisions.
I. The Negrillos. Classical tales of Pygmies. Physical characters. Habits. Relationship to Bushmen. Description of Bushmen and Hottentots.
II. The Negroes. Home of the true negroes. 1. The Nilotic Group. 2. The Sudanese Group. 3. The Senegambian Group. 4. The Guinean Group.
III. The Negroids. Physical traits. Early admixtures. 1. The Nubian Group. 2. The Bantu Group.