The History of Duelling. Vol. 1 (of 2)
HISTORY OF DUELLING:
OF THE MOST
REMARKABLE PERSONAL ENCOUNTERS
THAT HAVE TAKEN PLACE FROM THE EARLIEST PERIOD
TO THE PRESENT TIME.
J. G. MILLINGEN, M.D. F.R.S.
AUTHOR OF “CURIOSITIES OF MEDICAL EXPERIENCE,” ETC.
IN TWO VOLUMES.
RICHARD BENTLEY, NEW BURLINGTON STREET,
Publisher in Ordinary to Her Majesty.
PRINTED BY SAMUEL BENTLEY,
Bangor House, Shoe Lane.
THE FIRST VOLUME.
|CHAPTER I. |
|Object of the Work.—Ancient Duels and Single Combats characterized.—Origin of Duelling.—Trials by Ordeal.—Treachery and ferocity of the days of Chivalry.—Light thrown by the History of Duelling on the Manners and Constitutions of Society at different periods.—Introduction into the British Isles.—Advantages to be derived from chronicling the hideous details||Page 1|
|CHAPTER II. |
ON DUELLING AMONG THE ANCIENTS, AND IN OLDEN TIMES.
|The practice of Duelling unknown to the Ancients.—Personal conflicts of their Warriors.—Wrestlers in the Pancration.—Introduction of the Cæstus.—Female Pugilists.—Gladiators.—National conflicts.—Battle of the Thirty.—Onset between Bembrough and Beaumanoir.—Combat between Seven French and Seven English Knights.—Challenges between Sovereigns.—Francis the First and Charles the Fifth.—Edward the Third iv and Philip de Valois.—Christian the Fourth of Denmark and Charles the Ninth of Sweden.—Sully’s description of Duellists||9|
|CHAPTER III. |
THE ORIGIN OF DUELLING.
|Association of Brute Courage with Superstition.—Religion and Love.—Barbarous Courage of the Northern Nations.—Personal appeal to arms traced to their irruption in the Fifth Century.—Universal militarism.—Decision of Differences by brute force.—Establishment of Ordeals.—Judicial Combats.—Law of Gundebald, King of the Burgundians.—Mode of conducting these Judicial Combats.—A Burgundian Conflict described.—Lady Spectatresses.—Duel between Baron des Guerres and the Sieur de Faudilles.—Mode of conducting Ordeals and Judicial Combats.—The Weapons.—Form of Denial.—The Gage.—Duels by Proxy.—Bravoes, or Champions.—Trial by Hot Iron.—Trial by Hot and Cold Water.—Ordeal of the Cross.—Ordeal by Balance.—Ordeal by Poison.—Ordeal by Hot Oil.—Antiquity of the practice of Ordeals.—First Fire Ordeal.—Story of Simplicius Bishop of Autun.—Account of a Trial by Hot Water||21|
|CHAPTER IV. |
CELEBRATED JUDICIAL DUELS.
|Combat between Macaire and the Dog of Montargis.—Between the King of Burgundy’s Chamberlain and Gamekeeper.—Between a Courtier of Rharvald King of Lombardy and a Cousin of the Queen.—Between Gontran and Ingelgerius, Count of Anjou.—Ecclesiastical trials by battle.—Singular Trial by Battle at Toledo.—Judicial trials instituted by French Parliaments.—Edicts prohibiting Duels.—The Saviour’s v truce.—Account of the celebrated Duel between Jarnac and De la Chasteneraye.—Combat between Albert de Luignes and Panier.—Maugerel the King’s Killer.—Abolition of the Trial by Ordeal in England.—Ordeal of the heated Ploughshares.—Combat between Edward Ironside and Canute.—Introduction of Duelling into England.—Law of Alfred.—Laws of Edmund.—Price of Wounds and Injuries regulated.—Decision of the Cross.—Ordeal by the Consecrated Bread and Cheese, or Corsned.—Settlement of Feuds by Pecuniary Compensation.—Combat between William Count d’Eu and Godefroi Baynard—Between Henry de Essex and Robert de Montfort.—Institution of the Grand Assizes, or Trial by Jury, by Henry the Second.—Trial of Battle before the Court of Common Pleas||44|
|CHAPTER V. |
INSTITUTION OF CHIVALRY AND DUELS.
|Origin of Chivalric Laws and Customs.—The Assumption of Arms considered a Religious Rite.—Gallantry.—Union of Love and Religion.—Institution of Knighthood.—Tilts and Tournaments.—Increase of Duelling.—Degrading results of Chivalry.—Desperate pranks of the Crusaders.—Massacre of the Albigenses.—Knighthood becomes instrumental to Clerical or Military Ambition.—The Dog of Our Lady.—Francis the First’s Principle of Honour.—Giving the Lie.—First Chivalric Meeting.—Rules and Regulations for the Management of Tournaments.—Tournaments forbidden by the Clergy.—Edward the First challenged by the Count de Chalons.—His joust with the French Knights.—The petty Battle of Chalons.—Fatal Encounter of Henry the Second of France with Count Montgomery.—Ferocity and absurdity of these “Points of Honour.”—Deadly Combat between two Spanish Captains at Ferrara.—“Beau Combat” between M. de Bayard and Don Alonzo de Soto Mayor.—Punctiliousness in taking Offence.—Object of vi Tilts and Tournaments.—Injunction of the Dame des Belles Cousines to Little Jean de Saintré.—“Love par Amours.”—Influence of the Clergy.—Origin of the “Truce of God.”—The Crusades under Godefroi de Bouillon.—Advantages held out to the Crusaders.—Revolution in Property produced by the Crusades.—Discovery of the Pandects of Justinian.—Introduction of Civil Law||66|
|CHAPTER VI. |
EARLY DUELLING IN FRANCE.
|France the Classic Ground of Duelling.—Brantôme’s Rules for Duellers.—Right of a Soldier to call out his Captain.—Opinions of La Béraudière, Basnage, and Alciat.—Decorations and button-hole Badges.—The Badge of Love.—Choice of Arms.—Ancient modes of Fighting.—Fighting with sharp-pointed daggers in front of the Helmet.—Fighting in Steel Collars with pointed blades.—Privilege of the Offended to choose his Arms.—Fighting in Armour.—State of Society in France during the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries.—Introduction of the Pistol||94|
|CHAPTER VII. |
DUELLING IN FRANCE DURING THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY.
|Effects of the Gasconading Challenge sent by Francis the First to Charles the Fifth.—Duel between Chateauneuf and his Guardian Lachesnaye.—Between the Nephew of Marshal St. André and M. Matas.—Between a Roman Gentleman and the Chevalier De Refuge.—Exploits of Baron de Vitaux, the Paragon of France.—His Duel with Baron de Mittaud.—His Death.—Duel between Caylus and D’Entragues.—Between Riberac and Maugerin.—Between Schomberg and Livaret.—Introduction of the custom of Seconds fighting with each other.—Murderous Contests of Antoine de Clarmont.—Contest of six against six||109vii|
|CHAPTER VIII. |
DUELLING IN FRANCE DURING THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.
|Edicts of Henry the Fourth against duelling.—Desperate nature of these bloody feuds.—Combat between Joeilles and Devese.—Celebrated Ruffians.—Trial of Skill between Lagarde Valoise and Bazanez.—Battle of the Hats.—Pardons for duelling.—Endeavours of Sully to check the practice.—Edict of Blois.—“The point of honour.”—Refusal of M. de Reuly to fight a duel||123|
|CHAPTER IX. |
DUELLING DURING THE REIGN OF LOUIS THE THIRTEENTH.
|Ferocity and absurdity of private rencontres during this reign.—Fighting with knives.—Baron de Luz and his son killed by the Chevalier de Guise.—Prohibitory edicts.—Anecdotes by Lord Herbert of Cherbury.—Case of M. Mennon.—“C’est Monsieur Balaguy!”—Quarrels for top-knots and ribands.—Duel between the Prince de Chalais and the Count of Pont Gibaut.—Excesses of “the golden youth of France.”—Conflict between Boutteville and the Marquis de Beuvron.—Boutteville’s execution||133|
|CHAPTER X. |
DUELLING IN FRANCE DURING THE REIGN OF LOUIS THE FOURTEENTH.
|Picture of the Times.—Endeavours to check the Spirit of Duelling.—The celebrated “Edit des Duels.”—Severe pains and penalties.—Courts of Honour instituted.—Prize Medal for a Poem against Duelling.—Ecclesiastical frays.—Fighting with Crucifixes, Prayer-books, and Missals.—Private viii Outrages in high life.—The great Condé and the Comte des Rièux.—Duel between the Duke of Beaufort and the Duke de Nemours.—Between the Comte de Coligny and the Duke de Guise.—Between the Comte de Rochefort and the desperado Bréauté.—A singular Challenge.—Duel between La Frette and De Chalais.—Case of the Marquis de la Donze, Duel between the Counts de Brionne and d’Hautefort.—Quarrel of the Dukes de Luxembourg and Richelieu—And of the Prince de Conti and the Grand Prior of Vendôme.—A gambling duel.—Meeting between La Fontaine and an Officer.—Association for the Abolition of Duelling.—Its decline traced in the progress of Civilization.—The Point of Honour.—Coustard de Massis.—Defence of Duelling.—Frequency of Duels in the United States of America accounted for.—Montesquieu’s recapitulation of the grounds on which the erroneous views of the Point of Honour were based||151|
|CHAPTER XI. |
DUELLING IN FRANCE DURING THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.
|Profligacy of the Court during the Regency of Philip d’Orleans.—Disregard of the edict against duelling.—A duel about an Angola cat, fought at Paris in open day.—Duel between the Abbé D’Aydie and a clerk.—Between Contades and Brissac.—Efforts of Louis the Fifteenth to check duelling.—Duel between the Duke de Richelieu and the Count de Gacé.—Between Richelieu and the Count Albani.—Between Richelieu and the Prince de Lixen.—Between Du Vighan and the Count de Meulan.—“La botte de St. Evremont.”—Exploits of St. Foix.—Duel between Bricqueville and La Maugerie.—Rousseau’s denunciation of duelling.—Notions of honour that prevailed at Versailles and the Tuileries||183ix|
|CHAPTER XII. |
DUELLING IN FRANCE DURING THE REIGN OF LOUIS THE SIXTEENTH.
|State of the|
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