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Hygiene: a manual of personal and public health (New Edition)

Hygiene: a manual of personal and public health (New Edition)
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Title: Hygiene: a manual of personal and public health (New Edition)
Release Date: 2019-01-01
Type book: Text
Copyright Status: Public domain in the USA.
Date added: 27 March 2019
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Transcriber’s Notes

Obvious typographical errors have been silently corrected. Variationsin hyphenation have been standardised but all other spelling andpunctuation remains unchanged.

The original makes extensive use of „. This has been replaced by theoriginal text in some cases where this improved clarity or layout.

The mathematical and chemical formulae accurately represent the originalbut have not been error checked.


HYGIENE:
A MANUAL
OF
Personal and Public Health

BY
ARTHUR NEWSHOLME, M.D., F.R.C.P., Lond.,
UNIVERSITY SCHOLAR IN MEDICINE; DIPLOMATE IN PUBLIC HEALTH, UNIV. LOND.; MEDICAL
OFFICER OF HEALTH OF BRIGHTON; MEMBER OF THE COUNCIL AND EXAMINER TO THE
SANITARY INSTITUTE; EXAMINER IN STATE MEDICINE TO THE UNIVERSITY OF
LONDON; LATE EXAMINER IN PREVENTIVE MEDICINE TO THE UNIVERSITY OF
OXFORD, AND PRESIDENT OF THE INCORPORATED SOCIETY OF MEDICAL
OFFICERS OF HEALTH.


NEW EDITION, 1902. ILLUSTRATED.


LONDON:
Geo. Gill & Sons, Ld., Minerva House, Warwick Lane.


v

PREFACE.

The writing of a preface is perhaps superfluous for a book which hashad a large and steady sale for nearly twenty years, and which hasevidently met with the approval of a large constituency. A few wordsof introduction appear, however, desirable in view of the facts that thepresent edition has been almost entirely re-written; that a large amountof new matter has been introduced; and that, so far as is known, thecomments on each subject represent the most recent and authoritativeknowledge upon it.

An attempt has been made to meet the requirements of medicalstudents, as well as of science students and general readers, for whomformer editions were chiefly intended. A large class of medical studentsand practitioners do not require the detailed statement of the subjectcontained in the larger text-books. For them, and, it is hoped, also fora large number of candidates for diplomas in public health and in sanitaryscience, the present edition will prove to be useful. At the same time,the subject has been treated as non-technically as is consistent withaccuracy, in order to retain its suitability for non-medical readers. Alarge number of new illustrations have been introduced.

The new chapters dealing with Dietetics, Trade Nuisances,Meteorological Observations, Tuberculosis, Disinfection, and VitalStatistics will, it is believed, enhance the value of the book.

Attention is also drawn to the solutions of mathematical problemsin the different branches of hygiene, of which a table of contents is givenon page viii.

In its new form, it is hoped that this work will be found to haveretained its value as a plain and straightforward account of its subjectfor the general public and for science students; and to have become apractical guide to sanitary inspectors and to medical students, whetherpreparing for a diploma in public health, or studying hygiene as animportant branch of medicine. The use of smaller type for speciallytechnical matter of less general interest will facilitate discriminativereading.

ARTHUR NEWSHOLME.

Brighton,
February 28th, 1902.


vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Chapter. PAGE
I. Introductory 1
II. Food 4
III. The Varieties of Food 9
IV. Diseases due to Food 23
V. Diet 29
VI. The Preparation and Preservation of Food 38
VII. Condiments and Beverages 45
VIII. Fermented Drinks 55
IX. Water 65
X. The Storage and Delivery of Water 74
XI. Impurities of Water 78
XII. Origin and Effects of the Impurities of Water 89
XIII. The Purification of Water 94
XIV. Composition and Properties of Air 100
XV. Suspended Impurities of Air 105
XVI. Gaseous and Other Impurities of Air 111
XVII. Trade Nuisances 120
XVIII. The Examination of Air 125
XIX. The Purification of Air 129
XX. General Principles of Ventilation 132
XXI. Problems as to Ventilation 137
XXII. Methods of Ventilation 146
XXIII. Ventilation by the Introduction of Warmed Air 155
XXIV. The Warming of Houses 158
XXV. House Drainage 165
XXVI. Cesspools and Main Sewers 183
XXVII. Problems as to Flow in Sewers 187
XXVIII. The Disposal of Sewage 190
XXIX. Conservancy Methods 194
XXX. Position of the House 201
XXXI. The Materials used in the Construction of a House 205
XXXII. Construction of the House 209
XXXIII. The Soil 219
XXXIV. Climate and Weather 227viii
XXXV. Meteorological Observations 237
XXXVI. Personal Hygiene 245
XXXVII. Personal Hygiene—Exercise 249
XXXVIII. Personal Hygiene—Rest and Sleep 257
XXXIX. Personal Hygiene—Cleanliness 260
XL. Clothing 265
XLI. Parasites 273
XLII. The Rôle of Insects in Spreading Disease 281
XLIII. Infective Diseases 284
XLIV. Acute Infective Diseases 291
XLV. Tuberculosis 309
XLVI. Notification and Isolation 317
XLVII. Disinfection 324
XLVIII. Vital Statistics 335

SPECIAL TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR ARITHMETICALPROBLEMS IN HYGIENE.

PAGE
Problems in Milk Analysis 12
Problems in Dietetics 35
Problems in Water Analysis 86
Problems in Air Analysis 126
Problems as to Ventilation 137
Problems as to Flow in Sewers 187
Problems in Meteorology 242
Problems as to Work 254
Problems in Vital Statistics 336

1

HYGIENE.


CHAPTER I.
INTRODUCTORY.

In classical mythology, Æsculapius was worshipped as the god ofMedicine, while his daughter Hygeia had homage done to her asthe sweet and smiling goddess of Health. The temples of thesetwo deities were always placed in close contiguity; and statuesrepresenting Hygeia were often placed in the temple of Æsculapius.In these statues she is represented as a beautiful maid, holding inher hand a bowl, from which a serpent is drinking—the serpenttypifying the art of medicine, then merely an art, now establishingits right more and more to the dignity of a science.

That considerable attention was paid in very early times tomatters relating to health, is also shewn by the elaborate directionscontained in the Mosaic law as to extreme care in the choice ofwholesome foods and drinks, in isolation of the sick, and attentionto personal and public cleanliness. It is not surprising, therefore,to find that the Jews, throughout the whole of their history, haveapparently enjoyed a high standard of health.

In this country great ignorance of the laws of Health has priorto the last fifty years prevailed, and consequently preventiblediseases have been rampant, and have claimed innumerable victims.Each century has been marked by great epidemics, which haveswept through the country, scattering disease and death in theircourse. In the fourteenth century, for instance, there was the BlackDeath, a disease so fatal that it left scarcely one-fourth part of thepeople alive; while Europe altogether is supposed to have lostabout 40 millions of its inhabitants, and China alone 13 millions.A century and a half later came the Sweating Sickness (thoughthere were a score of minor epidemics in between). This wascarried by Henry the Seventh’s army throughout the country, andso great was the mortality, that “if half the population in any townescaped, it was thought great favour.” Considerable light is thrownon the rapid spread of this disease after its importation, when weremember that there were no means of ventilation in the houses;that the floors were covered with rushes which were constantly puton fresh without removing the old, thus concealing a mass of filth2and exhaling a noisome vapour; while clothing was immoderatelywarm and seldom changed; baths were very seldom indulged in,and soap hardly used.

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries there were five or sixepidemics of The Plague, and it was only eradicated from London,when all the houses from Temple Bar to the Tower were burneddown in the Great Fire of September 2nd, 1666, which destroyedthe insanitary and necessitated the building of new and largerhouses.

Scurvy, jail-fever, and small-pox, are other diseases which wereformerly frightfully prevalent. Jail-fever, the same disease as themodern typhus-fever, has now become practically extinct in itsformer habitat, owing largely to the noble work of John Howard,“whose life was finally brought to an end by the fever, against theravages of which his life had been expended.” This disease wasfostered by overcrowding, ill-ventilation, and filth.

Scurvy formerly produced a very great mortality, especiallyamong sea-faring men. In Admiral Anson’s fleet in 1742, out of961 men, 626 died in nine months, or nearly two out of every three,and this was no solitary case. Captain Cook, on the other hand,conducted an expedition round the world, consisting of 118 men;and although absent over three years, only lost one life. He waspractically the first to demonstrate the potency of fresh vegetablesin preventing scurvy.

The striking facts respecting small-pox will be found on page293. The general death-rate has also greatly declined. Thus whilethe annual death-rate in London 200 years ago was 80 per 1,000, itonly averaged 18.8 in the four years 1896-99; and the death-rate ofEngland and Wales has declined from 22.4 in 1841-50 to 18.7 per1,000 in 1891-95 and 17.6 in 1896-99.

That much still remains to be done is evident on every hand.There is little doubt that the general death-rate might be reducedto 15 per 1,000 per annum, instead of the present 18, were the lawsof health applied in every household and community. It has beenestimated that on the average at least 20 cases of sickness occur forevery death; therefore nearly half of the population is ill at leastonce a year. A simple calculation will show how much loss thecommunity annually suffers from this vast mass of preventiblesickness. It amounts to many millions of pounds, leaving outof the reckoning the suffering and distress which are alwaysassociated with sickness. For details relating to special diseases,see page 297.

In the prevention of this mass of sickness, the knowledge of itscausation is half the battle; when once a disease

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