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Steam Navigation and Its Relation to the Commerce of Canada and the United States

Steam Navigation and Its Relation to the Commerce of Canada and the United States
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Author: Croil James
Title: Steam Navigation and Its Relation to the Commerce of Canada and the United States
Release Date: 2019-02-10
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The Project Gutenberg eBook, Steam Navigation and Its Relation to theCommerce of Canada and the United States, by James Croil

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Title: Steam Navigation and Its Relation to the Commerce of Canada and the United States

Author: James Croil

Release Date: February 10, 2019 [eBook #58849]

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8

***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK STEAM NAVIGATION AND ITS RELATION TO THE COMMERCE OF CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES***

 

E-text prepared by
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and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team
(http://www.pgdp.net)
from page images generously made available by
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(https://archive.org)

 

Note: Images of the original pages are available through Internet Archive. See https://archive.org/details/steamnavigation00croiuoft

 


 

 

 

Book Cover.

STEAM NAVIGATION.


LORD MOUNTSTEPHEN. LORD STRATHCONA. SIR SANDFORD FLEMING.

Steam Navigation
AND
ITS RELATION TO THE COMMERCE
OF CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES.

BY

James Croil,

MONTREAL.

Author of “Dundas: A Sketch of Canadian History.”

With Illustrations and Portraits.

TORONTO:
WILLIAM BRIGGS.
MONTREAL: THE MONTREAL NEWS COMPANY, Limited
1898.


Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada,in the year one thousand eight hundred and ninety-eight, by William Briggs,at the Department of Agriculture.


This Volume
is dedicated by permission to
His Excellency the Earl of Aberdeen,
K.T., G.C.M.G., etc.,
Governor-General of Canada
from 1893 to 1898,
a nobleman who will long be gratefully remembered
as the benefactor and friend
of all classes of the community, and
who, with his Consort,
The Countess of Aberdeen, LL.D.
will always be associated by the
Canadian people with a period in their history of
great national prosperity,
their joint efforts in furthering lofty ideals
having done much to
advance the highest interests of the Dominion.


Royal William memorial Plate.

[Pg ix]

PREFACE.

W

WHEN the history of the nineteenth century comes to be written, notthe least interesting chapter of it will be that which treats of theorigin, the development, and the triumphs of Steam Navigation—thatmighty combination of inventive genius and mechanical force that hasbridged the oceans and brought the ends of the earth together.

During the past few years several important contributions to thisclass of literature have issued from the metropolitan press. Three ofthese deserve special mention: (1) “The Atlantic Ferry; its Ships,Men, and Working,” by Arthur J. Maginnis, gold medallist and member ofthe Institution of Naval Architects, 1892; (2) “Our Ocean Railways,or the Rise, Progress, and Development of Ocean Steam Navigation,” byA. Fraser-Macdonald, 1893; (3) “The History of North Atlantic SteamNavigation, with Some Account of Early Ships and Shipowners,” by HenryFry, ex-President of Dominion Board of Trade of Canada and Lloyd’sAgent at Quebec, 1896. Each of these writers, in his own way, hastreated the subject so thoroughly and satisfactorily, the author feels[Pg x]as though the wind had been taken out of his sails somewhat, and it isnot without hesitation that he has yielded to the advice of friends inwhose judgment he has implicit confidence, and ventured to follow inthe wake of such accomplished writers.

If I am questioned as to motif I cannot better justify the rash deedthan by endorsing the sentiment in Byron’s apostrophe:

“And I have loved thee, Ocean! and my joy
Of youthful sports was on thy breast to be
Borne, like thy bubbles, onward; from a boy
I wantoned with thy breakers—they to me
Were a delight.”

These pages are of a much less pretentious character than theabove-named books. They are but a compilation of materials more orless intimately connected with Steam Navigation, gathered from manysources, during many years, and now woven into homely narrative. Theynecessarily contain much in common with these other writings on thissubject, but they are projected from a different standpoint and embracea wider field, supplying information not easily obtained, respectingthe far-reaching waterways of Canada, her magnificent ship canals, andthe vast steam commerce of the Great Lakes.

So numerous are the sources of information drawn upon, it is impossibleto make adequate acknowledgment of them all. The agents of Atlanticlines of steamships were particularly obliging in their replies to[Pg xi]inquiries made of them. Without in any way making them responsible forthe use made of their communications, upon these my remarks on thatbranch of the subject are chiefly based. Among other publications Ihave consulted the “Transactions of the Imperial Institute,” London,and of the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec; Governmentreports emanating from Ottawa and Washington; also many pamphlets,magazine and newspaper articles bearing on the subject, not to speak ofmy capacious scrap-book and some well-thumbed note-books.

Additional authorities will be indicated as the narrative proceeds.Besides these, grateful acknowledgments for valuable assistance aredue to Sir Sandford Fleming and Mr. George Johnson, F.S.S., of Ottawa;to Messrs. Douglas Battersby, R. W. Shepherd, and the late CaptainThomas Howard, of Montreal; to Mr. Archibald Campbell, of Quebec;Captain Clarke Hamilton, of Kingston; Mrs. Holden, of Port Dover, Ont.,and Mr. T. M. Henderson, of Victoria, B.C.; to members of the Boardsof Trade in Montreal, Minneapolis and Duluth; and to the followingclergymen: Rev. Dr. Bruce, of St. John, N.B.; Rev. T. F. Fullerton, ofCharlottetown. P.E.I.; Rev. James Bennett, of L’Orignal, Ont., and Rev.W. H. L. Howard, of Fort William, Ont.

The illustrations have nearly all been made for this work: thewood-cuts by Mr. J. H. Walker, and the half-tones by the StandardPhoto-Engraving Company, Montreal.

J. C.

Montreal, October, 1898.


[Pg xii]

CONTENTS.


page.
CHAPTER I.
The Dawn of Steam Navigation 17

CHAPTER II.
Early Years of Steam Navigation 50

CHAPTER III.
The Cunard Steamship Company 71

CHAPTER IV.
North Atlantic Steamship Companies 103

CHAPTER V.
Steam to India and the East 142

CHAPTER VI.
Steam in the British Navy 166

CHAPTER VII.
The St. Lawrence Route 192

CHAPTER VIII.
Steam on the Great Lakes 244

CHAPTER IX.
Steam Commerce of the Great Lakes 268

CHAPTER X.
Steam Navigation in all the Provinces  
of the Dominion and in Newfoundland   307

[Pg xiii]

ILLUSTRATIONS.


STEAM VESSELS.
page
Alberta 285
Atlantic 105
Augusta Victoria 133
Beaver 335
Britannia 72
Caledonia 146
Campania 78
Canada 226
Charlotte Dundas 32
Clermont 42
Columba 38
Comet 35
Corona 329
Crescent 191
Duke of Wellington 167
Empire 255
Empress of Japan 162
Great Britain 62
Great Eastern 63
Hornet 169
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